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पेरिस

विकिपीडिया, निःशुल्क विश्वकोष से
नेविगेशन पर जाएं खोज के लिए जाएं

पेरिस
La Tour Eiffel vue de la Tour Saint-Jacques, Paris août 2014 (2).jpg
Pont des Arts, Paris.jpg
Paris Opera full frontal architecture, May 2009.jpg
Arcdetriomphe 2.jpg
Louvre Courtyard, Looking West.jpg
ऊपर से नीचे और बाएं से दाएं: सीन पर एफिल टॉवर , पृष्ठभूमि में आइल सेंट-लुई और नोट्रे-डेम डी पेरिस के साथ पोंट डेस आर्ट्स , पालिस गार्नियर , आर्क डी ट्रायम्फ और अंत में लौवर
झंडा
राज्य - चिह्न
आदर्श वाक्य: 
उतार-चढ़ाव एनईसी मर्जिटुर
"लहरों से उछाला गया लेकिन कभी नहीं डूबा"
पेरिस का स्थान
Paris
पेरिस
Paris
पेरिस
निर्देशांक: 48°51′24″N 2°21′08″E / 48.856613°N 2.352222°E / 48.856613; 2.352222 निर्देशांक : 48°51′24″N 2°21′08″E  / 48.856613°N 2.352222°E / 48.856613; 2.352222
देशफ्रांस
क्षेत्रइले डी फ्रांस
विभागपेरिस
पारस्परिकतामेट्रोपोल डू ग्रैंड पेरिस
उप विभाजनों20 arrondissements
सरकार
 • मेयर (2020–2026)ऐनी हिडाल्गो ( PS )
क्षेत्र
1
105.4 किमी 2 (40.7 वर्ग मील)
 • शहरी
 (2020)
2,853.5 किमी 2 (1,101.7 वर्ग मील)
 • मेट्रो
 (2020)
18,940.7 किमी 2 (7,313.0 वर्ग मील)
आबादी
 (जनवरी 2018) [1]
2,175,601
 • घनत्व21,000/किमी 2 (53,000/वर्ग मील)
 •  शहरी
 (जनवरी 2017 [2] )
१०,७८५,०९२
 • शहरी घनत्व3,800/किमी 2 (9,800/वर्ग मील)
 •  मेट्रो
 (जनवरी 2017 [3] )
१३,०२४,५१८
 • मेट्रो घनत्व690/किमी 2 (1,800/वर्ग मील)
दानव (ओं)पेरिसियन (ओं) ( en ) पेरिसियन , पेरिसियन ( fr )
समय क्षेत्रयूटीसी+01:00 ( सीईटी )
 • गर्मी ( डीएसटी )यूटीसी+02: 00 ( सीईएसटी )
INSEE / पोस्टल कोड
75056 /75001-75020, 75116
ऊंचाई28–131 मीटर (92–430 फीट)
(औसत 78 मीटर या 256 फीट)
वेबसाइटwww .paris .fr
1 फ्रेंच भूमि रजिस्टर डेटा, जिसमें झीलों, तालाबों, ग्लेशियरों> 1 किमी 2 (0.386 वर्ग मील या 247 एकड़) और नदी के मुहाने शामिल नहीं हैं।

पेरिस ( फ्रेंच उच्चारण: [paʁi] ( सुनने ) ) है राजधानी और सबसे अधिक आबादी वाला शहर की फ्रांस , एक अनुमान के अनुसार के साथ जनसंख्या 2018 के रूप में 2,175,601 निवासियों के एक से अधिक 105 वर्ग किलोमीटर (41 वर्ग मील) के एक क्षेत्र में,। [४] १७वीं शताब्दी से, पेरिस यूरोप के वित्त , कूटनीति , वाणिज्य , फैशन , पाक कला , विज्ञान और कला के प्रमुख केंद्रों में से एक रहा है । पेरिस शहर . की सरकार का केंद्र और सीट हैआइल-डी-फ़्रांस , या पेरिस क्षेत्र, जिसकी अनुमानित जनसंख्या 12,174,880 है, या 2017 तक फ़्रांस की जनसंख्या का लगभग 18 प्रतिशत है [5] पेरिस क्षेत्र एक था सकल घरेलू उत्पाद 2017 में € 709 बिलियन (808 अरब $) की [6] के अनुसार अर्थशास्त्री खुफिया इकाई 2018 में लिविंग सर्वे ऑफ दुनिया भर में लागत, पेरिस था दुनिया में दूसरा सबसे महंगा शहर, के बाद सिंगापुर और ज्यूरिख , हांगकांग , ओस्लो और जिनेवा से आगे[७] एक अन्य स्रोत ने २०१८ में पेरिस को सिंगापुर और हांगकांग के बराबर सबसे महंगा स्थान दिया। [८] [९]

पेरिस दो अंतरराष्ट्रीय हवाई अड्डों द्वारा संचालित एक प्रमुख रेलवे, राजमार्ग और हवाई-परिवहन केंद्र है: पेरिस-चार्ल्स डी गॉल (यूरोप का दूसरा सबसे व्यस्त हवाई अड्डा) और पेरिस-ओरली[१०] [११] १९०० में खोला गया, शहर की मेट्रो प्रणाली, पेरिस मेट्रो , प्रतिदिन ५.२३ मिलियन यात्रियों की सेवा करती है; [१२] मॉस्को मेट्रो के बाद यह यूरोप की दूसरी सबसे व्यस्त मेट्रो प्रणाली है गारे डू नॉर्ड दुनिया का २४वां सबसे व्यस्त रेलवे स्टेशन है, लेकिन २०१५ में २६२ मिलियन यात्रियों के साथ जापान के बाहर पहला स्थान है। [१३] पेरिस विशेष रूप से अपने संग्रहालयों और वास्तुशिल्प स्थलों के लिए जाना जाता है: लौवर2019 में 9.6 मिलियन आगंतुकों के साथ दुनिया में सबसे अधिक देखा जाने वाला कला संग्रहालय था। [१४] [१५] COVID-19 महामारी और विदेशी आगंतुकों की संख्या में गिरावट के कारण, २०२० में आगंतुकों की संख्या ७२ प्रतिशत गिरकर २७ लाख हो गई , लेकिन यह २०२० में सबसे अधिक देखा जाने वाला कला संग्रहालय बना रहा [१६]मुसी डी'ऑर्से , मुसी मर्मोटन मोनेट और मुसी डे ल'ऑरेंजी फ्रांसीसी प्रभाववादी कला के अपने संग्रह के लिए विख्यात हैं Pompidou केन्द्र Musée राष्ट्रीय डी'आर्ट Moderne का सबसे बड़ा संग्रह आधुनिक और समकालीन कलायूरोप में। Musée Rodin और मुसी पिकासो दो विख्यात पेरिस का काम करता है दिखा रहे हैं। शहर के केंद्र में सीन के साथ ऐतिहासिक जिले को यूनेस्को की विश्व धरोहर स्थल के रूप में वर्गीकृत किया गया है ; वहां के लोकप्रिय स्थलों में इले डे ला सीट पर कैथेड्रल ऑफ़ नोट्रे डेम डे पेरिस शामिल है , जो अब 15 अप्रैल 2019 की आग के बाद नवीनीकरण के लिए बंद कर दिया गया है । अन्य लोकप्रिय पर्यटन स्थलों में सैंटे- चैपल का गोथिक शाही चैपल भी शामिल है, जो आइल डे ला सीट पर भी है; एफिल टॉवर , के लिए बनायीं गयी 1889 की पेरिस यूनिवर्सल प्रदर्शनी ; ग्रांड पैलेस और पेटिट पैलेस, १९०० के पेरिस सार्वभौम प्रदर्शनी के लिए बनाया गया ; आर्क डी ट्रायम्फ पर Champs-Élysées , साथ ही Sacré-Coeur के बेसिलिका की पहाड़ी पर Montmartre

2019 में पेरिस को 38 मिलियन आगंतुक मिले, जिसे होटल में ठहरने से मापा जाता है, जिसमें सबसे अधिक संख्या में विदेशी आगंतुक संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका, यूनाइटेड किंगडम, जर्मनी और चीन से आते हैं। [१७] इसे 2019 में बैंकॉक के बाद और लंदन से ठीक आगे दुनिया में दूसरे सबसे अधिक देखे जाने वाले यात्रा गंतव्य के रूप में स्थान दिया गया था [१८] हालांकि, २०२० में, COVID-19 महामारी के कारण , पेरिस और उसके क्षेत्र में पर्यटन नाटकीय रूप से १७.५ मिलियन आगंतुकों तक गिर गया, होटल में ठहरने के द्वारा मापा जाने वाले विदेशी पर्यटकों में ७८ प्रतिशत की गिरावट और फ्रेंच में ५६ प्रतिशत की गिरावट के साथ मेहमानों, 68 प्रतिशत की कुल गिरावट के लिए। [19] फुटबॉल क्लब पेरिस सेंट-जर्मन और रग्बी यूनियनक्लब स्टेड फ़्रैंकैस पेरिस में स्थित हैं। 1998 फीफा विश्व कप के लिए बनाया गया 80,000 सीटों वाला स्टेड डी फ्रांस , सेंट-डेनिस के पड़ोसी कम्यून में पेरिस के उत्तर में स्थित है । पेरिस रोलैंड गैरोस की लाल मिट्टी पर वार्षिक फ्रेंच ओपन ग्रैंड स्लैम टेनिस टूर्नामेंट की मेजबानी करता है । शहर ने 1900 , 1924 में ओलंपिक खेलों की मेजबानी की और 2024 के ग्रीष्मकालीन ओलंपिक की मेजबानी करेगा 1938 और 1998 फीफा विश्व कप , 2007 रग्बी विश्व कप के साथ-साथ 1960 , 1984 और 2016 यूईएफए यूरोपीय चैंपियनशिप भी शहर में आयोजित की गईं। हर जुलाई, टूर डी फ्रांस साइकिल दौड़ पेरिस में एवेन्यू डेस चैंप्स-एलिसीस पर समाप्त होती है

व्युत्पत्ति [ संपादित करें ]

प्राचीन Oppidum कि पेरिस के आधुनिक शहर से मेल खाती है पहले से मध्य 1 शताब्दी ई.पू. में उल्लेख किया गया था जूलियस सीजर के रूप में Luteciam Parisiorum ( ' Lutetia की Parisii ') , और बाद में अनुप्रमाणित किया गया है Parision के रूप में 5 वीं शताब्दी ई में है, तो पेरिस में 1265. [20] [21] रोमन काल के दौरान, यह आमतौर पर के रूप में जाना जाता था Lutetia या Lutecia लैटिन में, और जैसा कि Leukotekía ग्रीक में, जो या तो से उत्पन्न के रूप में व्याख्या की है सेल्टिक जड़ * lukot- ( 'माउस') , या से *luto- ('मार्श, दलदल'), इस पर निर्भर करता है कि लैटिन या ग्रीक रूप मूल सेल्टिक नाम के सबसे करीब है या नहीं। [२२] [२३] [२१]

पेरिस नाम इसके शुरुआती निवासियों, पेरिसि , लौह युग और रोमन काल से एक गैलिक जनजाति से लिया गया है [24] के अर्थ Gaulish ethnonym बहस बनी हुई है। जेवियर डेलामारे के अनुसार , यह सेल्टिक रूट पैरियो- (' कौलड्रोन ') से प्राप्त हो सकता है [२४] अल्फ्रेड होल्डर ने नाम की व्याख्या 'निर्माताओं' या 'कमांडरों' के रूप में की, इसकी तुलना वेल्श पेरीफ़ ('लॉर्ड, कमांडर') से की, दोनों संभवतः एक प्रोटो-सेल्टिक रूप से उतरते हैं जिसे * क्वार-इस- के रूप में पुनर्निर्मित किया गया है। कब -. [२५] वैकल्पिक रूप से, पियरे-यवेस लैम्बर्ट ने पहले तत्व को पुराने आयरिश कैर ('स्पीयर') से जोड़कर, पेरिसि को 'स्पीयर पीपल ' के रूप में अनुवाद करने का प्रस्ताव दिया , जो पहले के * क्वार-सा से प्राप्त हुआ था [२१] किसी भी मामले में, शहर का नाम ग्रीक पौराणिक कथाओं के पेरिस से संबंधित नहीं है

पेरिस को अक्सर 'लाइट ऑफ सिटी' ( ला विले लुमियर ) के रूप में जाना जाता है , [२६] दोनों ही प्रबुद्धता के युग के दौरान इसकी प्रमुख भूमिका के कारण और अधिक शाब्दिक रूप से क्योंकि पेरिस गैस स्ट्रीट लाइटिंग का उपयोग करने वाले पहले बड़े यूरोपीय शहरों में से एक था। इसके बुलेवार्ड और स्मारकों पर बड़े पैमाने पर। 1829 में प्लेस डू कैरोसेल , रुए डे रिवोली और प्लेस वेंडोम पर गैस लाइटें लगाई गई थीं। 1857 तक, ग्रैंड बुलेवार्ड जलाए गए थे। [२७] १८६० के दशक तक, पेरिस के मार्ग और सड़कें ५६,००० गैस लैंपों से प्रकाशित हो चुकी थीं। [२८] १९वीं सदी के अंत से, पेरिस को के रूप में भी जाना जाता हैपैनम (ई) ( उच्चारण  [पानम] ) फ्रेंच स्लैंग में[29]

निवासियों को अंग्रेजी में "पेरिसियन" और फ्रेंच में पेरिसियन के रूप में जाना जाता है ([paʁizjɛ] ( सुनने ) )। उन्हें अपमानजनक रूप से परिगोट भी कहा जाता है([paʁiɡo] ( सुनने ) )। [नोट 1] [30]

इतिहास [ संपादित करें ]

मूल [ संपादित करें ]

Parisii , की एक उप-जनजाति सेल्टिक Senones , 3 शताब्दी ई.पू. के मध्य के आसपास से पेरिस क्षेत्र बसे हुए। [३१] [३२] क्षेत्र के प्रमुख उत्तर-दक्षिण व्यापार मार्गों में से एक इले डे ला सीट पर सीन को पार करता है ; भूमि और जल व्यापार मार्गों का यह मिलन स्थल धीरे-धीरे एक महत्वपूर्ण व्यापारिक केंद्र बन गया। [३३] पेरिसियों ने कई नदी कस्बों (कुछ इबेरियन प्रायद्वीप के रूप में दूर) के साथ व्यापार किया और उस उद्देश्य के लिए अपने स्वयं के सिक्कों का निर्माण किया। [34]

पेरिस द्वारा ढाले गए सोने के सिक्के (पहली शताब्दी ईसा पूर्व)

रोम के लोगों पर विजय प्राप्त की पेरिस बेसिन 52 ईसा पूर्व में और पेरिस 'पर उनके निपटान के लिए शुरू किया लेफ्ट बैंक[35] रोमन शहर मूल रूप से बुलाया गया था Lutetia (अधिक पूरी तरह से, Lutetia Parisiorum , आधुनिक फ्रेंच "Parisii की Lutetia" Lutèce )। यह एक मंच, स्नानागार, मंदिर, थिएटर और एक रंगभूमि के साथ एक समृद्ध शहर बन गया [36]

पश्चिमी रोमन साम्राज्य के अंत तक , शहर को पेरिसियस के नाम से जाना जाता था , एक लैटिन नाम जो बाद में फ्रेंच में पेरिस बन गया [३७] ईसाई धर्म की शुरुआत तीसरी शताब्दी ईस्वी के मध्य में पेरिस के पहले बिशप, सेंट डेनिस द्वारा की गई थी : किंवदंती के अनुसार, जब उन्होंने रोमन कब्जाधारियों के सामने अपने विश्वास को त्यागने से इनकार कर दिया, तो उन्हें पहाड़ी पर सिर काट दिया गया, जिसे जाना जाता है मॉन्स शहीद (लैटिन "हिल ऑफ शहीद"), बाद में " मोंटमार्ट्रे ", जहां से वह शहर के उत्तर में बिना सिर के चला गया; वह स्थान जहां वह गिर गया और उसे दफनाया गया, एक महत्वपूर्ण धार्मिक मंदिर बन गया, सेंट-डेनिस का बेसिलिका, और कई फ्रांसीसी राजाओं को वहां दफनाया गया है। [38]

मेरोविंगियन राजवंश के पहले राजा क्लोविस द फ्रैंक ने 508 से शहर को अपनी राजधानी बनाया। [39] जैसे ही गॉल का फ्रैंकिश वर्चस्व शुरू हुआ, फ्रैंक्स द्वारा पेरिस में एक क्रमिक आप्रवासन शुरू हुआ और पेरिस की फ़्रांसिअन बोलियों का जन्म हुआ। आइल डे ला सीट की किलेबंदी 845 में वाइकिंग्स द्वारा बर्खास्त करने को रोकने में विफल रही , लेकिन पेरिस के रणनीतिक महत्व - जहाजों को गुजरने से रोकने वाले पुलों के साथ - पेरिस की घेराबंदी (885-86) में सफल रक्षा द्वारा स्थापित किया गया था , जिसके लिए तत्कालीन काउंट ऑफ पेरिस ( कॉम्टे डी पेरिस ), फ्रांस के ओडो को किसका राजा चुना गया था?पश्चिम फ्रांसिया[४०] कैपेटियन राजवंश से, जो ह्यूग कैपेट , काउंट ऑफ पेरिस और ड्यूक ऑफ द फ्रैंक्स ( ड्यूक डेस फ्रैंक्स ) के ९८७ के चुनाव के साथ शुरू हुआ , एक एकीकृत फ्रांसिया के राजा के रूप में, पेरिस धीरे-धीरे फ्रांस का सबसे बड़ा और सबसे समृद्ध शहर बन गया। [38]

लुई XIV के लिए उच्च और स्वर्गीय मध्य युग [ संपादित करें ]

पालिस डे ला सीट और सैंटे-चैपल , ट्रेस रिचेस हेरेस डु डुक डी बेरी (जून का महीना) (1410) से लेफ्ट बैंक से देखा गया।

12वीं शताब्दी के अंत तक पेरिस फ्रांस की राजनीतिक, आर्थिक, धार्मिक और सांस्कृतिक राजधानी बन गया था। [41] Palais de la Cité , शाही निवास, इल de la Cité के पश्चिमी छोर पर स्थित था। 1163 में, लुई VII के शासनकाल के दौरान , पेरिस के बिशप मौरिस डी सुली ने अपने पूर्वी छोर पर नोट्रे डेम कैथेड्रल का निर्माण किया

सीन नदी और उसके उत्तर की ओर धीमी 'मृत भुजा' के बीच दलदली भूमि १०वीं शताब्दी के आसपास भर जाने के बाद, [४२] पेरिस का सांस्कृतिक केंद्र दाहिने किनारे की ओर बढ़ना शुरू हुआ। 1137 में, एक नए शहर के बाज़ार (आज के लेस हॉल्स ) ने आईले डे ला सीट और प्लेस डे ला ग्रेव (प्लेस डी ल'होटल डी विले) पर दो छोटे लोगों को बदल दिया [४३] बाद के स्थान में पेरिस नदी व्यापार निगम का मुख्यालय था, एक संगठन जो बाद में अनौपचारिक रूप से (हालांकि बाद के वर्षों में औपचारिक रूप से), पेरिस की पहली नगरपालिका सरकार बन गया।

12 वीं शताब्दी के अंत में, फिलिप ऑगस्टस ने पश्चिम से नदी के आक्रमण के खिलाफ शहर की रक्षा के लिए लौवर किले का विस्तार किया , शहर को 1190 और 1215 के बीच अपनी पहली दीवारें दीं, इसके पुलों को इसके केंद्रीय द्वीप के दोनों ओर फिर से बनाया, और इसके मुख्य मार्ग को पक्का किया . [४४] ११९० में, उन्होंने पेरिस के पूर्व कैथेड्रल स्कूल को एक छात्र-शिक्षक निगम में बदल दिया, जो पेरिस विश्वविद्यालय बन जाएगा और पूरे यूरोप से छात्रों को आकर्षित करेगा। [45] [41]

१३२८ में २००,००० निवासियों के साथ, पेरिस, जो पहले से ही फ्रांस की राजधानी थी, यूरोप का सबसे अधिक आबादी वाला शहर था। तुलनात्मक रूप से, 1300 में लंदन में 80,000 निवासी थे। [46]

होटल डे Sens , पेरिस में मध्य युग के कई अवशेष में से एक

के दौरान सौ साल के युद्ध , पेरिस इंग्लैंड के अनुकूल के कब्जे में था Burgundian बलों अंग्रेजी द्वारा एकमुश्त पर कब्जा कर लिया जा रहा है जब से पहले 1418 से, इंग्लैंड के हेनरी वी 1420 में फ्रांस की राजधानी में प्रवेश किया; [४७] जोन ऑफ आर्क द्वारा शहर को मुक्त करने के १४२९ प्रयासों के बावजूद , [४८] यह १४३६ तक अंग्रेजी के कब्जे में रहेगा।

१६वीं शताब्दी के अंत में धर्म के फ्रांसीसी युद्ध , पेरिस कैथोलिक लीग का गढ़ था , २४ अगस्त १५७२ के सेंट बार्थोलोम्यू दिवस हत्याकांड का आयोजक जिसमें हजारों फ्रांसीसी प्रोटेस्टेंट मारे गए थे। [४९] [५०] यह संघर्ष तब समाप्त हुआ जब सिंहासन के दावेदार हेनरी चतुर्थ ने कैथोलिक धर्म अपनाने के बाद राजधानी में प्रवेश पाने के लिए १५९४ में फ्रांस के ताज का दावा करने के लिए शहर में प्रवेश किया। इस राजा ने अपने शासनकाल के दौरान राजधानी में कई सुधार किए: उन्होंने पेरिस के पहले खुले, फुटपाथ-रेखा वाले पुल, पोंट नेफ का निर्माण पूरा किया, इसे ट्यूलरीज पैलेस से जोड़ने के लिए एक लौवर एक्सटेंशन बनाया।, और पहला पेरिस आवासीय वर्ग, प्लेस रोयाल, अब प्लेस डेस वोसगेस बनायाशहर के संचलन में सुधार के लिए हेनरी चतुर्थ के प्रयासों के बावजूद, पेरिस की सड़कों की संकीर्णता 1610 में लेस हॉल्स बाज़ार के पास उनकी हत्या में एक महत्वपूर्ण कारक थी [51]

१७वीं शताब्दी के दौरान, लुई XIII के मुख्यमंत्री , कार्डिनल रिशेल्यू , पेरिस को यूरोप का सबसे सुंदर शहर बनाने के लिए दृढ़ थे। उन्होंने पांच नए पुलों का निर्माण किया , सोरबोन कॉलेज के लिए एक नया चैपल , और खुद के लिए एक महल, पालिस-कार्डिनल , जिसे उन्होंने लुई XIII को वसीयत दी। 1642 में रिशेल्यू की मृत्यु के बाद, इसका नाम बदलकर पैलेस-रॉयल कर दिया गया [52]

फ्रोंडे गृहयुद्ध के दौरान पेरिस के विद्रोह के कारण , लुई XIV ने 1682 में अपने दरबार को एक नए महल, वर्साय में स्थानांतरित कर दिया। हालांकि अब फ्रांस की राजधानी नहीं रह गई है, लेकिन शहर में कला और विज्ञान कॉमेडी-फ़्रैन्साइज़ , अकादमी के साथ फला - फूला । पेंटिंग, और फ्रेंच एकेडमी ऑफ साइंसेज । यह प्रदर्शित करने के लिए कि शहर हमले से सुरक्षित था, राजा ने शहर की दीवारों को ध्वस्त कर दिया और पेड़-पंक्तिबद्ध बुलेवार्ड के साथ बदल दिया जो आज के ग्रैंड बुलेवार्ड बन जाएंगे [५३] उनके शासनकाल के अन्य निशान कॉलेज डेस क्वात्रे-नेशन्स , द प्लेस वेंडोमे , थेप्लेस डेस विक्टोयर्स , और लेस इनवैलिड्स[54]

१८वीं और १९वीं शताब्दी [ संपादित करें ]

पेरिस की आबादी में 1780 में 650,000 करने के लिए 1640 में के बारे में 400,000 से बढ़ी [55] एक नया मुख्य मार्ग, Champs-Élysées , करने के लिए शहर पश्चिम बढ़ाया Étoile , [56] जबकि मजदूर वर्ग पड़ोस Faubourg Saint-एंटोनी पर शहर के पूर्वी क्षेत्र में फ्रांस के अन्य क्षेत्रों के गरीब प्रवासी कामगारों की भीड़ बढ़ती गई। [57]

पेरिस दार्शनिक और वैज्ञानिक गतिविधि के विस्फोट का केंद्र था, जिसे एज ऑफ एनलाइटनमेंट के रूप में जाना जाता है डिडेरॉट और डी'अलेम्बर्ट ने 1751 में अपना विश्वकोश प्रकाशित किया , और मोंटगॉल्फियर ब्रदर्स ने 21 नवंबर 1783 को चैटाऊ डे ला मुएट के बगीचों से गर्म हवा के गुब्बारे में पहली मानवयुक्त उड़ान शुरू की पेरिस महाद्वीपीय यूरोप की वित्तीय राजधानी थी, पुस्तक प्रकाशन और फैशन का प्राथमिक यूरोपीय केंद्र और बढ़िया फर्नीचर और विलासिता के सामान का निर्माण। [58]

बैस्टिल का तूफान 14 जुलाई 1789 को, जीन-पियरे होउली द्वारा

१७८९ की गर्मियों में, पेरिस फ्रांसीसी क्रांति के लिए केंद्र मंच बन गया । 14 जुलाई को, एक भीड़ पर शस्त्रागार जब्त Invalides , बंदूकें के हजारों प्राप्त करने, और Bastille पर धावा बोल दिया , शाही सत्ता का प्रतीक। पहला स्वतंत्र पेरिस कम्यून , या नगर परिषद, होटल डी विले में मिला और 15 जुलाई को, एक मेयर , खगोलशास्त्री जीन सिल्वेन बैली को चुना गया[59]

लुई सोलहवें और शाही परिवार को पेरिस लाया गया और तुइलरीज पैलेस के भीतर कैदी बना दिया गया। १७९३ में, जैसे-जैसे क्रांति अधिक से अधिक कट्टरपंथी होती गई, पूरे फ्रांस में १६,००० से अधिक अन्य लोगों के साथ, राजा, रानी और महापौर को आतंक के शासन में गिलोटिन (निष्पादित) किया गया [६०] अभिजात वर्ग और चर्च की संपत्ति का राष्ट्रीयकरण कर दिया गया , और शहर के चर्चों को बंद कर दिया गया, बेचा गया या ध्वस्त कर दिया गया। [६१] क्रांतिकारी गुटों के एक उत्तराधिकार ने ९ नवंबर १७९९ तक पेरिस पर शासन किया ( तख्तापलट ड्यू १८ ब्रुमायर ), जब नेपोलियन बोनापार्ट ने प्रथम कौंसल के रूप में सत्ता पर कब्जा कर लिया। [62]

Panthéon , पर एक बड़ा मील का पत्थर Rive Gauche , 1790 में पूरा किया गया।

क्रांति के दौरान पेरिस की जनसंख्या में १००,००० की गिरावट आई थी, लेकिन १७९९ और १८१५ के बीच, यह १६०,००० नए निवासियों के साथ बढ़कर ६६०,००० तक पहुंच गया। [६३] नेपोलियन बोनापार्ट ने पेरिस की चुनी हुई सरकार को केवल एक प्रीफेक्ट रिपोर्टिंग के साथ बदल दिया। उन्होंने आर्क डी ट्रायम्फ सहित सैन्य गौरव के लिए स्मारकों का निर्माण शुरू किया , और नए फव्वारे, कैनाल डे ल'ऑरक , पेरे लचाइज़ कब्रिस्तान और शहर के पहले धातु पुल, पोंट डेस आर्ट्स के साथ शहर के उपेक्षित बुनियादी ढांचे में सुधार किया [63]

बहाली के दौरान , पेरिस के पुलों और चौकों को उनके पूर्व-क्रांतिकारी नामों में वापस कर दिया गया था; जुलाई क्रांति 1830 में (द्वारा मनाया जुलाई स्तंभ पर प्लेस डी ला Bastille ) एक संवैधानिक सम्राट, लाया लुई फिलिप मैं सत्ता में। पेरिस के लिए पहली रेलवे लाइन 1837 में खोली गई, जिससे प्रांतों से शहर में बड़े पैमाने पर प्रवास की एक नई अवधि शुरू हुई [६३] लुइस-फिलिप को १८४८ में पेरिस की सड़कों पर एक लोकप्रिय विद्रोह से उखाड़ फेंका गया था । उनके उत्तराधिकारी, नेपोलियन III , सीन के नव नियुक्त प्रीफेक्ट, जॉर्जेस-यूजीन हॉसमैन के साथ थे।, बोइस डी बोलोग्ने और बोइस डी विन्सेनेस सहित व्यापक नए बुलेवार्ड, एक नया ओपेरा हाउस, एक केंद्रीय बाजार, नए एक्वाडक्ट्स, सीवर और पार्क बनाने के लिए एक विशाल सार्वजनिक निर्माण परियोजना शुरू की [६४] १८६० में, नेपोलियन III ने आसपास के शहरों पर भी कब्जा कर लिया और आठ नए अखाड़ों का निर्माण किया, पेरिस को अपनी वर्तमान सीमा तक विस्तारित किया। [64]

१८६० के दशक में, पेरिस की सड़कों और स्मारकों को ५६,००० गैस लैंप से रोशन किया गया था, इसे "द सिटी ऑफ़ लाइट" नाम दिया गया था [65]

के दौरान फ्रेंको-प्रुस्सियन युद्ध (1870-1871), पेरिस ने घेर लिया था प्रशिया सेनामहीनों की नाकाबंदी, भूख और फिर प्रशिया की बमबारी के बाद, शहर को २८ जनवरी १८७१ को आत्मसमर्पण करने के लिए मजबूर होना पड़ा। २८ मार्च को पेरिस कम्यून नामक एक क्रांतिकारी सरकार ने पेरिस में सत्ता पर कब्जा कर लिया। मई १८७१ के अंत में "ब्लडी वीक" के दौरान फ्रांसीसी सेना द्वारा इसे कठोरता से दबाने तक कम्यून ने दो महीने तक सत्ता संभाली रही। [६६]

एफिल टॉवर , नवंबर 1888 में निर्माण के तहत, चौंका पेरिस - और दुनिया - अपनी आधुनिकता के साथ।

19वीं सदी के अंत में, पेरिस ने दो प्रमुख अंतरराष्ट्रीय प्रदर्शनियों की मेजबानी की: 1889 सार्वभौम प्रदर्शनी , फ्रांसीसी क्रांति के शताब्दी वर्ष को चिह्नित करने के लिए आयोजित की गई थी और इसमें नया एफिल टॉवर दिखाया गया था; और 1900 यूनिवर्सल एक्सपोज़िशन , जिसने पेरिस को पोंट एलेक्ज़ेंडर III , ग्रैंड पैलेस , पेटिट पैलेस और पहली पेरिस मेट्रो लाइन दी। [६७] पेरिस प्रकृतिवाद ( एमिल ज़ोला ) और प्रतीकवाद ( चार्ल्स बौडेलेयर और पॉल वेरलाइन ) और कला में प्रभाववाद ( कोर्बेट ) की प्रयोगशाला बन गया।, मानेट , मोनेट , रेनॉयर ). [68]

२०वीं और २१वीं सदी [ संपादित करें ]

1901 तक, पेरिस की जनसंख्या लगभग 2,715,000 हो गई थी। [६९] सदी की शुरुआत में, पाब्लो पिकासो , मोदिग्लिआनी और हेनरी मैटिस सहित दुनिया भर के कलाकारों ने पेरिस को अपना घर बनाया। यह फौविज़्म , क्यूबिज़्म और अमूर्त कला का जन्मस्थान था , [७०] [७१] और मार्सेल प्राउस्ट जैसे लेखक साहित्य के लिए नए दृष्टिकोण तलाश रहे थे। [72]

के दौरान प्रथम विश्व युद्ध , पेरिस कभी कभी सामने लाइन पर ही पाया; ६०० से १,००० पेरिस टैक्सियों ने मार्ने की पहली लड़ाई में ६,००० सैनिकों को अग्रिम पंक्ति में ले जाने में एक छोटी लेकिन अत्यधिक महत्वपूर्ण प्रतीकात्मक भूमिका निभाई । शहर भी द्वारा उड़ा दिया गया Zeppelins और जर्मन द्वारा खोलीदार लंबी दूरी की बंदूकें[७३] युद्ध के बाद के वर्षों में, जिसे लेस एनीस फॉल्स के नाम से जाना जाता है , पेरिस दुनिया भर के लेखकों, संगीतकारों और कलाकारों के लिए एक मक्का बना रहा, जिसमें अर्नेस्ट हेमिंग्वे , इगोर स्ट्राविंस्की , जेम्स जॉयस , जोसेफिन बेकर , ईवा कोटचेवर ,हेनरी मिलर , अनास निन , सिडनी बेचेट [74] एलन गिन्सबर्ग [75] और अतियथार्थवादी सल्वाडोर डाली[76]

शांति सम्मेलन के बाद के वर्षों में , शहर फ्रांसीसी उपनिवेशों और अन्य एशियाई और अफ्रीकी देशों के छात्रों और कार्यकर्ताओं की बढ़ती संख्या का भी घर था , जो बाद में हो ची मिन्ह , झोउ एनलाई और लियोपोल्ड सेडर सेनघोर जैसे अपने देशों के नेता बन गए। . [77]

पेरिस की मुक्ति का जश्न मनाते हुए चैंप्स-एलिसीस पर जनरल चार्ल्स डी गॉल , २६ अगस्त १९४४

14 जून 1940 को, जर्मन सेना ने पेरिस में मार्च किया, जिसे " खुला शहर " घोषित किया गया था [७८] १६-१७ जुलाई १९४२ को, जर्मन आदेशों का पालन करते हुए, फ्रांसीसी पुलिस और जेंडरमेस ने १२,८८४ यहूदियों को गिरफ्तार किया, जिनमें ४,११५ बच्चे भी शामिल थे, और उन्हें वेल डी'हिव ( वेलोड्रोम डी'हिवर ) में पांच दिनों के दौरान सीमित कर दिया , जहां से वे ट्रेन द्वारा ऑशविट्ज़ के विनाश शिविर में ले जाया गया । कोई बच्चा वापस नहीं आया। [79] [80] 25 अगस्त 1944 को शहर से मुक्त किया गया फ्रेंच 2 बख्तरबंद डिवीजन और 4 इन्फैंट्री डिवीजन के संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका सेना । जनरल चार्ल्स डी गॉलचैंप्स एलिसीज़ के नीचे नोट्रे डेम डे पेरिस की ओर एक विशाल और भावनात्मक भीड़ का नेतृत्व किया, और होटल डी विले से एक उत्साहजनक भाषण दिया [81]

१९५० और १९६० के दशक में, पेरिस स्वतंत्रता के लिए अल्जीरियाई युद्ध का एक मोर्चा बन गया ; अगस्त 1961 में, स्वतंत्रता-समर्थक FLN ने 11 पेरिस पुलिसकर्मियों को निशाना बनाया और मार डाला, जिससे अल्जीरिया के मुसलमानों (जो उस समय, फ्रांसीसी नागरिक थे) पर कर्फ्यू लगा दिया गया। 17 अक्टूबर 1961 को, कर्फ्यू के खिलाफ अल्जीरियाई लोगों के एक अनधिकृत लेकिन शांतिपूर्ण विरोध प्रदर्शन के कारण पुलिस और प्रदर्शनकारियों के बीच हिंसक टकराव हुआ, जिसमें कम से कम 40 लोग मारे गए, जिनमें से कुछ को सीन में फेंक दिया गया। स्वतंत्रता-विरोधी संगठन armée secrète (OAS) ने अपने हिस्से के लिए, 1961 और 1962 के दौरान पेरिस में बमबारी की एक श्रृंखला को अंजाम दिया। [82] [83]

मई 1968 में, विरोध करने वाले छात्रों ने सोरबोन पर कब्जा कर लिया और लैटिन क्वार्टर में बैरिकेड्स लगा दिए । हजारों पेरिस के ब्लू-कॉलर कार्यकर्ता छात्रों में शामिल हो गए, और आंदोलन दो सप्ताह की आम हड़ताल में बदल गया। जून के चुनाव में सरकार के समर्थकों ने भारी बहुमत से जीत हासिल की। फ्रांस में मई 1968 की घटनाओं में 13 स्वतंत्र परिसरों में पेरिस विश्वविद्यालय का अलगाव हो गया में हुई। [84] 1975 में, नेशनल असेंबली अन्य फ्रांसीसी शहरों की है कि पेरिस की स्थिति बदल और 25 मार्च 1977 को,, जाक शिराक 1793 के बाद से पेरिस के पहले निर्वाचित मेयर बने [85] टूर मेन-Montparnasse, 57 मंजिला और 210 मीटर (68 9 फीट) ऊंची शहर की सबसे ऊंची इमारत, 1969 और 1973 के बीच बनाई गई थी। यह अत्यधिक विवादास्पद था, और यह 32 मंजिला से अधिक ऊंची शहर के केंद्र में एकमात्र इमारत बनी हुई है। [८६] पेरिस की जनसंख्या १९५४ में २,८५०,००० से गिरकर १९९० में २,१५२,००० हो गई, क्योंकि मध्यम वर्गीय परिवार उपनगरों में चले गए। [८७] मेट्रो के पूरक के लिए एक उपनगरीय रेलवे नेटवर्क, आरईआर (रेसेउ एक्सप्रेस रीजनल) बनाया गया था; शहर को घेरने वाला पेरिफेरिक एक्सप्रेसवे, 1973 में बनकर तैयार हुआ था। [88]

युद्ध के बाद के पांचवें गणराज्य के अधिकांश राष्ट्रपति पेरिस में अपने स्वयं के स्मारकों को छोड़ना चाहते थे; राष्ट्रपति जॉर्जेस पोम्पिडो ने सेंटर जॉर्जेस पोम्पिडो (1977) की शुरुआत की , वालेरी गिस्कार्ड डी'स्टाइंग ने मुसी डी'ऑर्से (1986) की शुरुआत की ; राष्ट्रपति फ़्राँस्वा मित्तेर्रंद , 14 साल तक सत्ता में, निर्मित ओपेरा Bastille (1985-1989), की नई साइट Bibliothèque nationale de फ्रांस (1996), Arche डे ला डिफैंस (1985-1989), और लौवर पिरामिड के साथ अपने भूमिगत आंगन (1983-1989); जैक्स शिराक (2006), मुसी डू क्वाई ब्रैनली[89]

2016 में पश्चिमी पेरिस, जैसा कि स्काईसैट उपग्रह द्वारा फोटो खिंचवाया गया था

२१वीं सदी की शुरुआत में, पेरिस की जनसंख्या धीरे-धीरे फिर से बढ़ने लगी, क्योंकि अधिक युवा लोग शहर में चले गए। 2011 में यह 2.25 मिलियन तक पहुंच गया। मार्च 2001 में, बर्ट्रेंड डेलानो पेरिस के पहले समाजवादी मेयर बने। 2007 में, शहर में कार यातायात को कम करने के प्रयास में, उन्होंने वेलिब की शुरुआत की , एक प्रणाली जो स्थानीय निवासियों और आगंतुकों के उपयोग के लिए साइकिल किराए पर लेती है। बर्ट्रेंड डेलानो ने सीन के लेफ्ट बैंक के साथ राजमार्ग के एक हिस्से को शहरी सैरगाह और पार्क, प्रोमेनेड डेस बर्जेस डे ला सीन में बदल दिया , जिसका उद्घाटन उन्होंने जून 2013 में किया था। [90]

2007 में, राष्ट्रपति निकोलस सरकोजी ने पेरिस को इसके आसपास के क्षेत्र के शहरों के साथ और अधिक निकटता से एकीकृत करने के लिए ग्रैंड पेरिस परियोजना शुरू की कई संशोधनों के बाद , 1 जनवरी 2016 को 6.7 मिलियन की आबादी के साथ ग्रैंड पेरिस मेट्रोपोलिस नामक नया क्षेत्र बनाया गया था। [९१] २०११ में, पेरिस शहर और राष्ट्रीय सरकार ने ग्रैंड पेरिस की योजनाओं को मंजूरी दी थी। एक्सप्रेस , पेरिस को जोड़ने के लिए कुल 205 किलोमीटर (127 मील) स्वचालित मेट्रो लाइनें, पेरिस, हवाई अड्डों और हाई-स्पीड रेल (टीजीवी) स्टेशनों के आसपास के तीन सबसे बड़े विभाग, € 35 बिलियन की अनुमानित लागत पर। [९२] इस प्रणाली को २०३० तक पूरा करने की योजना है।[93]

आतंकवादी हमले [ संपादित करें ]

चार्ली हेब्दो की शूटिंग के बाद प्लेस डे ला रिपब्लिक पर आतंकवाद विरोधी प्रदर्शन , ११ जनवरी २०१५

जुलाई और अक्टूबर 1995 के बीच, अल्जीरिया के सशस्त्र इस्लामी समूह द्वारा किए गए बम विस्फोटों की एक श्रृंखला में 8 लोगों की मौत हुई और 200 से अधिक घायल हुए। [94]

७ जनवरी २०१५ को, दो फ्रांसीसी मुस्लिम चरमपंथियों ने चार्ली हेब्दो के पेरिस मुख्यालय पर हमला किया और अरब प्रायद्वीप में अल-कायदा द्वारा दावा किए गए हमले में १३ लोगों को मार डाला , [९५] और ९ जनवरी को, एक तीसरा आतंकवादी, जिसने दावा किया कि वह था आईएसआईएल का एक हिस्सा , पोर्ट डी विन्सेनेस में एक यहूदी किराने की दुकान पर हमले के दौरान चार बंधकों को मार डाला [९६] ११ जनवरी को अनुमानित १५ लाख लोगों ने आतंकवाद के खिलाफ एकजुटता दिखाने और अभिव्यक्ति की स्वतंत्रता के समर्थन में पेरिस में मार्च किया[९७] उसी वर्ष १३ नवंबर को,पेरिस और सेंट-डेनिस में समन्वित बम और गोलियों की एक श्रृंखला के आतंकवादी हमलों , आईएसआईएल द्वारा दावा किया गया, [९८] १३० लोग मारे गए और ३५० से अधिक घायल हुए। [९९]

3 फरवरी 2017 को, एक दो बैग ले जाने वाले, हथियार चलाने वाले हमलावर ने "अल्लाहु अकबर" चिल्लाते हुए लौवर संग्रहालय की रखवाली करने वाले सैनिकों पर हमला किया, जब उन्होंने उसे अपने बैग के कारण रोका; हमलावर को गोली मार दी गई, और कोई विस्फोटक नहीं मिला। [१००] उसी वर्ष १८ मार्च को, विट्री-सुर-सीन बार में, एक व्यक्ति ने संरक्षकों को बंधक बना लिया, फिर बाद में एक ओरली हवाई अड्डे के फ्रांसीसी सैनिक के सिर पर बंदूक रखने के लिए भाग गया , "मैं यहाँ मरने के लिए हूँ" अल्लाह के नाम पर", और सैनिक के साथियों द्वारा गोली मारकर हत्या कर दी गई। [१०१] २० अप्रैल को, एक व्यक्ति ने चैंप्स-एलिसीस पर एक फ्रांसीसी पुलिस अधिकारी को घातक रूप से गोली मार दी , और बाद में खुद को भी गोली मार ली। [102]19 जून को, एक व्यक्ति ने अपने हथियारों और विस्फोटकों से लदे वाहन को चैंप्स-एलिसीस पर एक पुलिस वैन में टक्कर मार दी, लेकिन कार केवल आग की लपटों में घिर गई। [103]

भूगोल [ संपादित करें ]

स्थान [ संपादित करें ]

सेंटिनल-2 . द्वारा पेरिस की सैटेलाइट इमेज
एक विमान से रात में पेरिस

पेरिस उत्तरी मध्य फ्रांस में सीन नदी के उत्तर-झुकने वाले चाप में स्थित है, जिसके शिखर में दो द्वीप शामिल हैं, आइल सेंट-लुई और बड़ा आइल डे ला सीट , जो शहर का सबसे पुराना हिस्सा है। इंग्लिश चैनल ( ला मांचे ) पर नदी का मुहाना शहर से लगभग 233 मील (375 किमी) नीचे की ओर है। शहर नदी के दोनों किनारों पर व्यापक रूप से फैला हुआ है। [१०४] कुल मिलाकर, शहर अपेक्षाकृत समतल है, और सबसे निचला बिंदु समुद्र तल से ३५ मीटर (११५ फीट) ऊपर है । पेरिस में कई प्रमुख पहाड़ियाँ हैं, जिनमें से सबसे ऊँची मोंटमार्ट्रे 130 मीटर (427 फीट) है। [१०५]

Bois de Boulogne और Bois de Vincennes के बाहरी पार्कों को छोड़कर , पेरिस 35 किमी (22 मील) रिंग रोड, बुलेवार्ड पेरिफेरिक से घिरे क्षेत्र में लगभग 87 किमी 2 (34 वर्ग मील) क्षेत्र में एक अंडाकार मापता है[१०६] १८६० में शहर के बाहरी क्षेत्रों के अंतिम प्रमुख विलय ने न केवल इसे अपना आधुनिक रूप दिया बल्कि 20 दक्षिणावर्त-सर्पिलिंग अरेंजमेंट (नगरपालिका नगर) भी बनाए। 78 किमी 2 (30 वर्ग मील) के 1860 क्षेत्र से , 1920 के दशक में शहर की सीमा को मामूली रूप से 86.9 किमी 2 (33.6 वर्ग मील) तक बढ़ा दिया गया था। 1929 में, Bois de Boulogne और Bois de Vincennes वन पार्कों को आधिकारिक तौर पर शहर से जोड़ दिया गया, जिससे इसका क्षेत्रफल लगभग 105 किमी 2 हो गया।(41 वर्ग मील)। [१०७] शहर का महानगरीय क्षेत्र २,३०० किमी (८९० वर्ग मील) है। [१०४]

इसके नोट्रे-डेम कैथेड्रल के सामने 'बिंदु शून्य' से मापा जाता है , पेरिस सड़क मार्ग से लंदन से 450 किलोमीटर (280 मील) दक्षिण-पूर्व में, कैलाइस से 287 किलोमीटर (178 मील) दक्षिण में , ब्रसेल्स के 305 किलोमीटर (190 मील) दक्षिण-पश्चिम में हैमार्सिले के उत्तर में 774 किलोमीटर (481 मील) , नैनटेस के उत्तर-पूर्व में 385 किलोमीटर (239 मील) , और रूएन से 135 किलोमीटर (84 मील) दक्षिण-पूर्व में [१०८]

जलवायु [ संपादित करें ]

पेरिस में शरद ऋतु

पेरिस में एक विशिष्ट पश्चिमी यूरोपीय समुद्री जलवायु ( कोपेन : सीएफबी ) है, जो उत्तरी अटलांटिक धारा से प्रभावित है । पूरे वर्ष समग्र जलवायु हल्की और मध्यम गीली रहती है। [१०] गर्मी के दिन आमतौर पर गर्म और सुखद होते हैं, जहां औसत तापमान १५ और २५ डिग्री सेल्सियस (५९ और ७७ डिग्री फ़ारेनहाइट) के बीच होता है, और धूप भी अच्छी होती है। [११०] हालांकि, हर साल कुछ दिन ऐसे होते हैं जब तापमान ३२ डिग्री सेल्सियस (९० डिग्री फारेनहाइट) से ऊपर चला जाता है। अधिक तीव्र गर्मी की लंबी अवधि कभी-कभी होती है, जैसे 2003 की गर्मी की लहर, जब तापमान 30 डिग्री सेल्सियस (86 डिग्री फ़ारेनहाइट) से अधिक हो जाता है, कुछ दिनों में 40 डिग्री सेल्सियस (104 डिग्री फ़ारेनहाइट) तक पहुंच जाता है और शायद ही कभी रात में ठंडा हो जाता है। [१११]वसंत और शरद ऋतु में, औसतन, हल्के दिन और ताजा रातें होती हैं, लेकिन बदल रही हैं और अस्थिर हैं। आश्चर्यजनक रूप से गर्म या ठंडा मौसम दोनों मौसमों में अक्सर होता है। [११२] सर्दियों में धूप कम होती है; दिन ठंडे होते हैं, और रातें ठंडी होती हैं, लेकिन आमतौर पर 3 डिग्री सेल्सियस (37 डिग्री फारेनहाइट) के कम तापमान के साथ ठंड से ऊपर होती हैं। [११३] हालांकि हल्की रात की ठंढ काफी आम है, लेकिन तापमान शायद ही कभी −5 डिग्री सेल्सियस (23 डिग्री फारेनहाइट) से नीचे चला जाता है। बर्फ हर साल गिरती है, लेकिन शायद ही कभी जमीन पर रहती है। शहर में कभी-कभी हल्की बर्फ दिखाई देती है या संचय के साथ या बिना आँधी चलती है। [११४]

पेरिस में औसत वार्षिक वर्षा 641 मिमी (25.2 इंच) है, और पूरे वर्ष समान रूप से वितरित हल्की वर्षा का अनुभव करता है। हालांकि, शहर रुक-रुक कर, अचानक, भारी बारिश के लिए जाना जाता है। २५ जुलाई २०१९ को उच्चतम दर्ज तापमान ४२.६ डिग्री सेल्सियस (१०८.७ डिग्री फ़ारेनहाइट) [११५] था और सबसे कम १० दिसंबर १८७९ को −२३.९ डिग्री सेल्सियस (−११.० डिग्री फ़ारेनहाइट) था। [११६]

पेरिस के लिए जलवायु डेटा ( पार्क मोंटसोरिस ), ऊंचाई: 75 मीटर (246 फीट), 1981–2010 सामान्य, चरम सीमा 1872-वर्तमान
महीनाजनवरीफ़रवरीमार्चअप्रैलमईजूनजुलाईअगस्तसितम्बरअक्टूबरनवम्बरदिसम्बरसाल
रिकॉर्ड उच्च डिग्री सेल्सियस (डिग्री फारेनहाइट)16.1
(61.0)
२१.४
(७०.५)
26.0
(78.8)
३०.२
(८६.४)
३४.८
(९४.६)
३७.६
(९९.७)
42.6
(108.7)
39.5
(103.1)
३६.२
(९७.२)
28.9
(84.0)
21.6
(70.9)
17.1
(62.8)
42.6
(108.7)
औसत उच्च डिग्री सेल्सियस (डिग्री फारेनहाइट)7.2
(45.0)
८.३
(४६.९)
12.2
(54.0)
15.6
(60.1)
१९.६
(६७.३)
22.7
(72.9)
25.2
(77.4)
25.0
(77.0)
21.1
(70.0)
16.3
(61.3)
10.8
(51.4)
७.५
(४५.५)
16.0
(60.8)
दैनिक औसत डिग्री सेल्सियस (डिग्री फारेनहाइट)4.9
(40.8)
5.6
(42.1)
8.8
(47.8)
11.5
(52.7)
15.2
(59.4)
१८.३
(६४.९)
20.5
(68.9)
20.3
(68.5)
16.9
(62.4)
13.0
(55.4)
८.३
(४६.९)
5.5
(41.9)
12.4
(54.3)
औसत कम डिग्री सेल्सियस (डिग्री फारेनहाइट)२.७
(३६.९)
2.8
(37.0)
5.3
(41.5)
7.3
(45.1)
10.9
(51.6)
13.8
(56.8)
15.8
(60.4)
15.7
(60.3)
12.7
(54.9)
9.6
(49.3)
5.8
(42.4)
३.४
(३८.१)
8.8
(47.8)
रिकॉर्ड कम डिग्री सेल्सियस (डिग्री फारेनहाइट)-14.6
(5.7)
-14.7
(5.5)
-9.1
(15.6)
-3.5
(25.7)
-0.1
(31.8)
३.१
(३७.६)
२.७
(३६.९)
6.3
(43.3)
1.8
(35.2)
-3.8
(25.2)
−14.0
(6.8)
-23.9
(-11.0)
-23.9
(-11.0)
औसत वर्षा मिमी (इंच)51.0
(2.01)
41.2
(1.62)
47.6
(1.87)
५१.८
(२.०४)
६३.२
(२.४९)
49.6
(1.95)
६२.३
(२.४५)
52.7
(2.07)
47.6
(1.87)
६१.५
(२.४२)
51.1
(2.01)
57.8
(2.28)
637.4
(25.09)
औसत वर्षा के दिन (≥ 1.0 मिमी)9.99.010.69.39.88.48.17.77.89.610.010.9111.1
औसत बर्फीले दिन3.03.91.60.60.00.00.00.00.00.00.7२.१11.9
औसत सापेक्षिक आर्द्रता (%)83७८73697069६८७१7682८४८४76
औसत मासिक धूप घंटे62.579.2128.9१६६.०193.8202.1२१२.२212.1१६७.९११७.८67.751.41,661.6
प्रतिशत संभव धूप22283539424243494335262135
औसत पराबैंगनी सूचकांक1234677643114
स्रोत १: मेटियो फ़्रांस , [११७] [११८] Infoclimat.fr (सापेक्ष आर्द्रता १९६१-१९९०) [११९]
स्रोत 2: मौसम एटलस (प्रतिशत धूप और यूवी सूचकांक) [120]


प्रशासन [ संपादित करें ]

शहर की सरकार [ संपादित करें ]

पेरिस के arrondissements का नक्शा

अपने लगभग सभी लंबे इतिहास के लिए, कुछ संक्षिप्त अवधियों को छोड़कर, पेरिस पर सीधे राजा, सम्राट या फ्रांस के राष्ट्रपति के प्रतिनिधियों द्वारा शासित किया गया था। 1974 तक नेशनल असेंबली द्वारा शहर को नगरपालिका स्वायत्तता नहीं दी गई थी। [१२१] पेरिस के पहले आधुनिक निर्वाचित मेयर जैक्स शिराक थे, जो २० मार्च १९७७ को चुने गए, 1793 के बाद से शहर के पहले मेयर बने। मेयर ऐनी हिडाल्गो हैं , जो एक समाजवादी हैं । पहली बार ५ अप्रैल २०१४ [१२२] निर्वाचित और २८ जून २०२० को फिर से निर्वाचित किया गया [123]

पेरिस का मेयर अप्रत्यक्ष रूप से पेरिस के मतदाताओं द्वारा चुना जाता है; शहर के 20 क्षेत्रों में से प्रत्येक के मतदाता कॉन्सिल डे पेरिस ( पेरिस की परिषद) के लिए सदस्यों का चुनाव करते हैं, जो बाद में महापौर का चुनाव करते हैं। परिषद 163 सदस्यों से बना है, प्रत्येक अधिवेशन ने अपनी आबादी पर निर्भर कई सीटों को आवंटित किया है, प्रत्येक कम से कम आबादी वाले arrondissements (1 से 9वीं) के लिए 10 सदस्यों से सबसे अधिक आबादी वाले (15 वें) के लिए 34 सदस्यों के लिए। दो-दौर प्रणाली में बंद सूची आनुपातिक प्रतिनिधित्व का उपयोग करके परिषद का चुनाव किया जाता है[१२४] पहले दौर में पूर्ण बहुमत जीतने वाली पार्टी की सूची - या कम से कम एक बहुलतादूसरे दौर में - स्वचालित रूप से एक arrondissement की आधी सीटें जीतें। [१२४] शेष आधी सीटों को उन सभी सूचियों में आनुपातिक रूप से वितरित किया जाता है जो उच्चतम औसत पद्धति का उपयोग करके कम से कम ५% वोट जीतती हैं [१२५] यह सुनिश्चित करता है कि जीतने वाली पार्टी या गठबंधन हमेशा बहुमत से जीतता है, भले ही वे वोट का पूर्ण बहुमत न जीतें। [१२४]

होटल डे विले , या शहर के हॉल, 1357 के बाद से एक ही साइट पर किया गया है।

एक बार निर्वाचित होने के बाद, परिषद शहर की सरकार में काफी हद तक निष्क्रिय भूमिका निभाती है, मुख्यतः क्योंकि यह महीने में केवल एक बार मिलती है। परिषद को 91 सदस्यों के वामपंथी गठबंधन के बीच विभाजित किया गया है, जिसमें समाजवादी, कम्युनिस्ट, साग, और अति वामपंथी शामिल हैं; और केंद्र-दक्षिणपंथ के लिए 71 सदस्य, साथ ही छोटे दलों के कुछ सदस्य। [१२६]

पेरिस के प्रत्येक 20 arrondissements का अपना टाउन हॉल और एक सीधे निर्वाचित परिषद ( conseil d'arrondissement ) है, जो बदले में, एक arrondissement मेयर का चुनाव करता है। [१२७] प्रत्येक अधिवेशन की परिषद में कॉन्सिल डे पेरिस के सदस्य होते हैं और वे सदस्य भी होते हैं जो केवल प्रशासनिक परिषद में सेवा करते हैं। प्रत्येक अधिवेशन में उप महापौरों की संख्या उसकी जनसंख्या के आधार पर भिन्न होती है। कुल 20 प्रशासनिक महापौर और 120 उप महापौर हैं। [१२१]

2018 के लिए शहर का बजट 9.5 बिलियन यूरो है, जिसमें 5.5 बिलियन यूरो का अपेक्षित घाटा है। 7.9 बिलियन यूरो शहर प्रशासन के लिए और 1.7 बिलियन यूरो निवेश के लिए नामित हैं। शहर के कर्मचारियों की संख्या 2001 में 40,000 से बढ़कर 2018 में 55,000 हो गई। निवेश बजट का सबसे बड़ा हिस्सा सार्वजनिक आवास (262 मिलियन यूरो) और अचल संपत्ति (142 मिलियन यूरो) के लिए निर्धारित किया गया है। [128]

मेट्रोपोल डू ग्रैंड पेरिस [ संपादित करें ]

ग्रेटर पेरिस मेट्रोपोलिस का नक्शा (मेट्रोपोल डू ग्रैंड पेरिस) और इसके 131 कम्यून्स

Métropole डु ग्रैंड पेरिस , या बस ग्रैंड पेरिस , औपचारिक रूप से 1 जनवरी 2016 को अस्तित्व में आया [129] यह पेरिस के शहर और उसके निकटतम उपनगरों के बीच सहयोग के लिए एक प्रशासनिक संरचना है। इसमें पेरिस शहर, साथ ही आंतरिक उपनगरों ( हौट्स-डी-सीन , सीन-सेंट-डेनिस और वैल-डी-मार्ने ) के तीन विभागों के कम्यून्स शामिल हैं, साथ ही बाहरी उपनगरों में सात कम्यून्स, वैल में अर्जेंटीना सहित d'Oise और पेरे-विले-पोस्ट में इस्सोने, जिन्हें पेरिस के प्रमुख हवाई अड्डों को शामिल करने के लिए जोड़ा गया था। मेट्रोपोल 814 वर्ग किलोमीटर (314 वर्ग मील) को कवर करता है और इसकी आबादी 6.945 मिलियन है। [१३०] [१३१]

नई संरचना को 210 सदस्यों की एक महानगर परिषद द्वारा प्रशासित किया जाता है, सीधे निर्वाचित नहीं, बल्कि सदस्य कम्यून्स की परिषदों द्वारा चुना जाता है। 2020 तक इसकी बुनियादी दक्षताओं में शहरी नियोजन, आवास और पर्यावरण की सुरक्षा शामिल होगी। [१२९] [१३१] मेट्रोपॉलिटन काउंसिल के पहले अध्यक्ष, पैट्रिक ओलियर , एक रिपब्लिकन और रूइल-माल्मिसन शहर के मेयर , २२ जनवरी २०१६ को चुने गए थे। हालांकि मेट्रोपोल की आबादी लगभग ७० लाख लोगों और खातों की है। फ्रांस के सकल घरेलू उत्पाद के 25 प्रतिशत के लिए, इसका बहुत छोटा बजट है: पेरिस शहर के लिए आठ अरब यूरो की तुलना में सिर्फ 65 मिलियन यूरो। [132]

क्षेत्रीय सरकार [ संपादित करें ]

पेरिस और उसके आसपास के समुदायों सहित आईल डी फ्रांस का क्षेत्र , क्षेत्रीय परिषद द्वारा शासित है, जिसका मुख्यालय पेरिस के 7वें अधिवेशन में है। यह क्षेत्र के भीतर विभिन्न कम्यूनों का प्रतिनिधित्व करने वाले 209 सदस्यों से बना है। 15 दिसंबर 2015 को, वैलेरी पेक्रेस के नेतृत्व में मध्यमार्गी और दक्षिणपंथी दलों के गठबंधन के अधिकार के संघ के उम्मीदवारों की एक सूची ने, समाजवादियों और पारिस्थितिकीविदों के गठबंधन को हराकर, क्षेत्रीय चुनाव जीता। समाजवादियों ने इस क्षेत्र पर सत्रह वर्षों तक शासन किया था। क्षेत्रीय परिषद में दक्षिणपंथी संघ से १२१ सदस्य, वामपंथी संघ से ६६ और अति दक्षिणपंथी राष्ट्रीय मोर्चा के २२ सदस्य हैं। [133]

राष्ट्रीय सरकार [ संपादित करें ]

एलिसे पैलेस , का सरकारी निवास फ्रांस गणराज्य के राष्ट्रपति

फ्रांस की राजधानी के रूप में, पेरिस फ्रांस की राष्ट्रीय सरकार की सीट है । कार्यपालिका के लिए, दो मुख्य अधिकारियों में से प्रत्येक का अपना आधिकारिक आवास होता है, जो उनके कार्यालयों के रूप में भी काम करता है। फ्रांस गणराज्य के राष्ट्रपति पर बसता था एलिसे पैलेस में 8 वें प्रशासनिक , [134] , जबकि प्रधानमंत्री की सीट पर है Hôtel Matignon में 7 वीं arrondissement[१३५] [१३६] सरकारी मंत्रालय शहर के विभिन्न हिस्सों में स्थित हैं; कई होटल Matignon के पास, 7वें अधिवेशन में स्थित हैं। [१३७]

फ्रांसीसी संसद के दोनों सदन रिव गौचे पर स्थित हैं। ऊपरी सदन, सीनेट , 6 वें अधिवेशन में पालिस डु लक्ज़मबर्ग में मिलता है , जबकि अधिक महत्वपूर्ण निचला सदन, नेशनल असेंबली , 7 वें अधिवेशन में पालिस बोर्बोन में मिलता है सीनेट के अध्यक्ष , फ्रांस में दूसरी सबसे अधिक सार्वजनिक अधिकारी (गणराज्य के राष्ट्रपति होने के नाते एकमात्र बेहतर), में बसता था पेटिट लक्समबर्ग , पेले डु लक्ज़मबर्ग करने के लिए एक छोटे महल एनेक्सी। [138]

पैलेस-रॉयल, कॉन्सिल डी'एटाटी का निवास
पेरिस के लिए नेशनल असेंबली के सदस्य (2017 में निर्वाचित)
चुनाव क्षेत्रसदस्य [139]पार्टी
पेरिस का पहला निर्वाचन क्षेत्रसिल्वेन माइलर्डला रिपब्लिक एन मार्चे!
पेरिस का दूसरा निर्वाचन क्षेत्रगाइल्स ले गेंड्रेला रिपब्लिक एन मार्चे!
पेरिस का तीसरा निर्वाचन क्षेत्रस्टैनिस्लास गुएरिनीला रिपब्लिक एन मार्चे!
पेरिस का चौथा निर्वाचन क्षेत्रब्रिगिट कुस्टररिपब्लिकन
पेरिस का 5वां निर्वाचन क्षेत्रबेंजामिन ग्रिवोला रिपब्लिक एन मार्चे!
पेरिस का छठा निर्वाचन क्षेत्रपियरे व्यक्तिला रिपब्लिक एन मार्चे!
पेरिस का सातवां निर्वाचन क्षेत्रपकोमे रूपिनला रिपब्लिक एन मार्चे!
पेरिस का 8वां निर्वाचन क्षेत्रलेटिटिया अवियाला रिपब्लिक एन मार्चे!
पेरिस का 9वां निर्वाचन क्षेत्रबून तनुला रिपब्लिक एन मार्चे!
पेरिस का 10वां निर्वाचन क्षेत्रऐनी-क्रिस्टीन लैंगला रिपब्लिक एन मार्चे!
पेरिस का 11वां निर्वाचन क्षेत्रमारिएले डे सरनेज़ोमोडम
पेरिस का 12वां निर्वाचन क्षेत्रओलिविया ग्रेगोइरेला रिपब्लिक एन मार्चे!
पेरिस का 13वां निर्वाचन क्षेत्रह्यूग्स रेनसनला रिपब्लिक एन मार्चे!
पेरिस का 14वां निर्वाचन क्षेत्रक्लाउड गोएसगुएनरिपब्लिकन
पेरिस का 15वां निर्वाचन क्षेत्रजॉर्ज पाउ-लैंग्विनसोशलिस्ट पार्टी
Paris' 16th constituencyMounir MahjoubiLa République En Marche!
Paris' 17th constituencyDanièle ObonoLa France Insoumise
Paris' 18th constituencyPierre-Yves BournazelThe Republicans

France's highest courts are located in Paris. The Court of Cassation, the highest court in the judicial order, which reviews criminal and civil cases, is located in the Palais de Justice on the Île de la Cité,[140] while the Conseil d'État, which provides legal advice to the executive and acts as the highest court in the administrative order, judging litigation against public bodies, is located in the Palais-Royal in the 1st arrondissement.[141] The Constitutional Council, an advisory body with ultimate authority on the constitutionality of laws and government decrees, also meets in the Montpensier wing of the Palais Royal.[142]

Paris and its region host the headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Chamber of Commerce, the Paris Club, the European Space Agency, the International Energy Agency, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the European Union Institute for Security Studies, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, the International Exhibition Bureau, and the International Federation for Human Rights.

Following the motto "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris";[143] the only sister city of Paris is Rome, although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around the world.[143]

Police force[edit]

Police (Gendarmerie) motorcyclists in Paris

The security of Paris is mainly the responsibility of the Prefecture of Police of Paris, a subdivision of the Ministry of the Interior. It supervises the units of the National Police who patrol the city and the three neighbouring departments. It is also responsible for providing emergency services, including the Paris Fire Brigade. Its headquarters is on Place Louis Lépine on the Île de la Cité.[144]

There are 30,200 officers under the prefecture, and a fleet of more than 6,000 vehicles, including police cars, motorcycles, fire trucks, boats and helicopters.[144] The national police has its own special unit for riot control and crowd control and security of public buildings, called the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS), a unit formed in 1944 right after the liberation of France. Vans of CRS agents are frequently seen in the centre of the city when there are demonstrations and public events.

The police are supported by the National Gendarmerie, a branch of the French Armed Forces, though their police operations now are supervised by the Ministry of the Interior. The traditional kepis of the gendarmes were replaced in 2002 with caps, and the force modernised, though they still wear kepis for ceremonial occasions.[145]

Crime in Paris is similar to that in most large cities. Violent crime is relatively rare in the city centre. Political violence is uncommon, though very large demonstrations may occur in Paris and other French cities simultaneously. These demonstrations, usually managed by a strong police presence, can turn confrontational and escalate into violence.[146]

Cityscape[edit]

Panorama of Paris as seen from the Eiffel Tower in a full 360-degree view (river flowing from north-east to south-west, right to left)

Urbanism and architecture[edit]

Most French rulers since the Middle Ages made a point of leaving their mark on a city that, contrary to many other of the world's capitals, has never been destroyed by catastrophe or war. In modernising its infrastructure through the centuries, Paris has preserved even its earliest history in its street map.[147] At its origin, before the Middle Ages, the city was composed of several islands and sandbanks in a bend of the Seine; of those, two remain today: Île Saint-Louis and the Île de la Cité. A third one is the 1827 artificially created Île aux Cygnes.

Camille Pissarro, Boulevard Montmartre, 1897, Hermitage Museum

Modern Paris owes much of its downtown plan and architectural harmony to Napoleon III and his Prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann. Between 1853 and 1870 they rebuilt the city centre, created the wide downtown boulevards and squares where the boulevards intersected, imposed standard facades along the boulevards, and required that the facades be built of the distinctive cream-grey "Paris stone". They also built the major parks around the city centre.[148] The high residential population of its city centre also makes it much different from most other western major cities.[149]

Rue de Rivoli
Place des Vosges

Paris' urbanism laws have been under strict control since the early 17th century,[150] particularly where street-front alignment, building height and building distribution is concerned. In recent developments, a 1974–2010 building height limitation of 37 metres (121 ft) was raised to 50 m (160 ft) in central areas and 180 metres (590 ft) in some of Paris' peripheral quarters, yet for some of the city's more central quarters, even older building-height laws still remain in effect.[150] The 210 metres (690 ft) Tour Montparnasse was both Paris's and France's tallest building since 1973,[151] but this record has been held by the La Défense quarter Tour First tower in Courbevoie since its 2011 construction.

Parisian examples of historical architectural styles date back more than a millennium, including the Romanesque church of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (1014–1163), the early Gothic Architecture of the Basilica of Saint-Denis (1144), the Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345), the Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle (1239–1248), the Baroque churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis (1627–1641) and Les Invalides (1670–1708). The 19th century produced the neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842), the Palais Garnier serving as an opera house (1875), the neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919), as well as the exuberant Belle Époque modernism of the Eiffel Tower (1889). Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include the Centre Georges Pompidou by Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano (1977), the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie by various architects (1986), the Arab World Institute by Jean Nouvel (1987), the Louvre Pyramid by I. M. Pei (1989) and the Opéra Bastille by Carlos Ott (1989). Contemporary architecture includes the Musée du quai Branly – Jacques Chirac by Jean Nouvel (2006), the contemporary art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation by Frank Gehry (2014)[152] and the new Tribunal de grande instance de Paris by Renzo Piano (2018).

Housing[edit]

The most expensive residential streets in Paris in 2018 by average price per square metre were Avenue Montaigne (8th arrondissement), at 22,372 euros per square metre; Place Dauphine (1st arrondissement; 20,373 euros) and the Rue de Furstemberg (6th arrondissement) at 18,839 euros per square metre.[153] The total number of residences in the City of Paris in 2011 was 1,356,074, up from a former high of 1,334,815 in 2006. Among these, 1,165,541 (85.9 percent) were main residences, 91,835 (6.8 percent) were secondary residences, and the remaining 7.3 percent were empty (down from 9.2 percent in 2006).[154]

Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from 1949 and before, 20 percent were built between 1949 and 1974, and only 18 percent of the buildings remaining were built after that date.[155] Two-thirds of the city's 1.3 million residences are studio and two-room apartments. Paris averages 1.9 people per residence, a number that has remained constant since the 1980s, but it is much less than Île-de-France's 2.33 person-per-residence average. Only 33 percent of principal residence Parisians own their habitation (against 47 percent for the entire Île-de-France): the major part of the city's population is a rent-paying one.[155] Social or public housing represented 19.9 percent of the city's total residences in 2017. Its distribution varies widely throughout the city, from 2.6 percent of the housing in the wealthy 7th arrondissement, to 24 percent in the 20th arrondissement, 26 percent in the 14th arrondissement and 39.9 percent in the 19th arrondissement, on the poorer southwest and northern edges of the city.[156]

On the night of 8–9 February 2019, during a period of cold weather, a Paris NGO conducted its annual citywide count of homeless persons. They counted 3,641 homeless persons in Paris, of whom twelve percent were women. More than half had been homeless for more than a year. 2,885 were living in the streets or parks, 298 in train and metro stations, and 756 in other forms of temporary shelter. This was an increase of 588 persons since 2018.[157]

Paris and its suburbs[edit]

Paris and its suburbs, as seen from the Spot Satellite
West of Paris seen from Tour Montparnasse in 2019

Aside from the 20th-century addition of the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes and the Paris heliport, Paris's administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860. A greater administrative Seine department had been governing Paris and its suburbs since its creation in 1790, but the rising suburban population had made it difficult to maintain as a unique entity. To address this problem, the parent "District de la région parisienne" ('district of the Paris region') was reorganised into several new departments from 1968: Paris became a department in itself, and the administration of its suburbs was divided between the three new departments surrounding it. The district of the Paris region was renamed "Île-de-France" in 1977, but this abbreviated "Paris region" name is still commonly used today to describe the Île-de-France, and as a vague reference to the entire Paris agglomeration.[158] Long-intended measures to unite Paris with its suburbs began on 1 January 2016, when the Métropole du Grand Paris came into existence.[129]

Paris' disconnect with its suburbs, its lack of suburban transportation, in particular, became all too apparent with the Paris agglomeration's growth. Paul Delouvrier promised to resolve the Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of the Paris region in 1961:[159] two of his most ambitious projects for the Region were the construction of five suburban "villes nouvelles" ("new cities")[160] and the RER commuter train network.[161] Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between the 1960s and 1970s to provide a low-cost solution for a rapidly expanding population:[162] These districts were socially mixed at first,[163] but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible to the middle classes only from the 1970s).[164] Their poor construction quality and their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed to their desertion by those able to move elsewhere and their repopulation by those with more limited possibilities.[164]

These areas, quartiers sensibles ("sensitive quarters"), are in northern and eastern Paris, namely around its Goutte d'Or and Belleville neighbourhoods. To the north of the city, they are grouped mainly in the Seine-Saint-Denis department, and to a lesser extreme to the east in the Val-d'Oise department. Other difficult areas are located in the Seine valley, in Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne), in Mureaux, Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines), and scattered among social housing districts created by Delouvrier's 1961 "ville nouvelle" political initiative.[165]

The Paris agglomeration's urban sociology is basically that of 19th-century Paris: its fortuned classes are situated in its west and southwest, and its middle-to-lower classes are in its north and east. The remaining areas are mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due to reasons of historical importance, namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés to the east and Enghien-les-Bains to the north of Paris.[166]

Demographics[edit]

2015 Census Paris Region[167][168]
Country/territory of birthPopulation
Metropolitan France9,165,570
Algeria310,019
Portugal243,490
Morocco241,403
Tunisia117,161
Guadeloupe80,062
Martinique77,300
Turkey69,835
China67,540
Mali60,438
Italy56,692
Côte d'Ivoire55,022
Senegal52,758
Romania49,124
Democratic Republic of Congo47,091
Spain47,058
Other countries/territories
Sri Lanka42,016
Cameroon41,749
Poland38,550
Republic of the Congo36,354
Haiti35,855
Vietnam35,139
Cambodia31,258
  Réunion28,869
India26,507
Serbia26,119
Germany21,620
Lebanon20,375
Mauritius19,506
Madagascar19,281
Pakistan18,801
United Kingdom18,209
Russia18,022
United States17,548
Other countries and territories846,914

The official estimated population of the City of Paris was 2,206,488 as of 1 January 2019, according to the INSEE, the official French statistical agency. This is a decline of 59,648 from 2015, close to the total population of the 5th arrondissement.[169] Despite the drop, Paris remains the most densely-populated city in Europe, with 252 residents per hectare, not counting parks.[169] This drop was attributed partly to a lower birth rate, to the departure of middle-class residents. and partly to the possible loss of housing in the city due to short-term rentals for tourism.[170]

Paris is the fourth largest municipality in the European Union, following Berlin, Madrid and Rome. Eurostat places Paris (6.5 million people) behind London (8 million) and ahead of Berlin (3.5 million), based on the 2012 populations of what Eurostat calls "urban audit core cities".[171]

City proper, urban area, and metropolitan area population from 1800 to 2010

The population of Paris today is lower than its historical peak of 2.9 million in 1921.[172] The principal reasons were a significant decline in household size, and a dramatic migration of residents to the suburbs between 1962 and 1975. Factors in the migration included de-industrialisation, high rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters, the transformation of living space into offices, and greater affluence among working families. The city's population loss came to a temporary halt at the beginning of the 21st century; the population increased from 2,125,246 in 1999 to 2,240,621 in 2012, before declining again slightly in 2017.[173] It declined again in 2018.

Paris is the core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its limits: commonly referred to as the agglomération Parisienne, and statistically as a unité urbaine (a measure of urban area), the Paris agglomeration's 2017 population of 10,784,830[174] made it the largest urban area in the European Union.[175] City-influenced commuter activity reaches well beyond even this in a statistical aire urbaine de Paris ("urban area", but a statistical method comparable to a metropolitan area[176]), that had a 2017 population of 12,628,266,[177] a number 19% the population of France,[178] and the largest metropolitan area in the Eurozone.[175]

According to Eurostat, the EU statistical agency, in 2012 the Commune of Paris was the most densely populated city in the European Union, with 21,616 people per square kilometre within the city limits (the NUTS-3 statistical area), ahead of Inner London West, which had 10,374 people per square kilometre. According to the same census, three departments bordering Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne, had population densities of over 10,000 people per square kilometre, ranking among the 10 most densely populated areas of the EU.[179][verification needed]

Migration[edit]

According to the 2012 French census, 586,163 residents of the City of Paris, or 26.2 percent, and 2,782,834 residents of the Paris Region (Île-de-France), or 23.4 percent, were born outside of metropolitan France (the last figure up from 22.4% at the 2007 census).[167] 26,700 of these in the City of Paris and 210,159 in the Paris Region were people born in Overseas France (more than two-thirds of whom in the French West Indies) and are therefore not counted as immigrants since they were legally French citizens at birth.[167]

A further 103,648 in the City of Paris and in 412,114 in the Paris Region were born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth.[167] This concerns in particular the many Christians and Jews from North Africa who moved to France and Paris after the times of independence and are not counted as immigrants due to their being born French citizens. The remaining group, people born in foreign countries with no French citizenship at birth, are those defined as immigrants under French law. According to the 2012 census, 135,853 residents of the City of Paris were immigrants from Europe, 112,369 were immigrants from the Maghreb, 70,852 from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt, 5,059 from Turkey, 91,297 from Asia (outside Turkey), 38,858 from the Americas, and 1,365 from the South Pacific.[180] Note that the immigrants from the Americas and the South Pacific in Paris are vastly outnumbered by migrants from French overseas regions and territories located in these regions of the world.[167]

In the Paris Region, 590,504 residents were immigrants from Europe, 627,078 were immigrants from the Maghreb, 435,339 from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt, 69,338 from Turkey, 322,330 from Asia (outside Turkey), 113,363 from the Americas, and 2,261 from the South Pacific.[181] These last two groups of immigrants are again vastly outnumbered by migrants from French overseas regions and territories located in the Americas and the South Pacific.[167][clarification needed]

In 2012, there were 8,810 British citizens and 10,019 United States citizens living in the City of Paris (Ville de Paris) and 20,466 British citizens and 16,408 United States citizens living in the entire Paris Region (Île-de-France).[182][183]

Religion[edit]

Sacré-Cœur in Montmartre
St-Gervais-et-St-Protais in Le Marais

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Paris was the largest Catholic city in the world.[184] French census data does not contain information about religious affiliation.[185] According to a 2011 survey by the Institut français d'opinion publique (IFOP), a French public opinion research organisation, 61 percent of residents of the Paris Region (Île-de-France) identified themselves as Roman Catholic. In the same survey, 7 percent of residents identified themselves as Muslims, 4 percent as Protestants, 2 percent as Jewish and 25 percent as without religion.

According to the INSEE, between 4 and 5 million French residents were born or had at least one parent born in a predominantly Muslim country, particularly Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. An IFOP survey in 2008 reported that, of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries, 25 percent went to the mosque regularly; 41 percent practised the religion, and 34 percent were believers but did not practice the religion.[186][187] In 2012 and 2013, it was estimated that there were almost 500,000 Muslims in the City of Paris, 1.5 million Muslims in the Île-de-France region and 4 to 5 million Muslims in France.[188][189]

The Jewish population of the Paris Region was estimated in 2014 to be 282,000, the largest concentration of Jews in the world outside of Israel and the United States.[190]

International organisations[edit]

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has had its headquarters in Paris since November 1958. Paris is also the home of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).[191] Paris hosts the headquarters of the European Space Agency, the International Energy Agency, European Securities and Markets Authority and, as of 2019, the European Banking Authority.

Economy[edit]

La Défense, the largest dedicated business district in Europe[192]
Companies with world headquarters
in the Paris Region ranked by revenue
(2018)
Paris
ranking
CorporationWorld
ranking
1AXA27
2Total S.A.28
3BNP Paribas44
4Carrefour68
5Crédit Agricole82
6EDF94
7Engie104
8Peugeot108
9Société Générale121
10Renault134
Source: Fortune Global 500 (2018)
The Eiffel Tower and the La Défense district

The economy of the City of Paris is based largely on services and commerce; of the 390,480 enterprises in the city, 80.6 percent are engaged in commerce, transportation, and diverse services, 6.5 percent in construction, and just 3.8 percent in industry.[193] The story is similar in the Paris Region (Île-de-France): 76.7 percent of enterprises are engaged in commerce and services, and 3.4 percent in industry.[194]

At the 2012 census, 59.5% of jobs in the Paris Region were in market services (12.0% in wholesale and retail trade, 9.7% in professional, scientific, and technical services, 6.5% in information and communication, 6.5% in transportation and warehousing, 5.9% in finance and insurance, 5.8% in administrative and support services, 4.6% in accommodation and food services, and 8.5% in various other market services), 26.9% in non-market services (10.4% in human health and social work activities, 9.6% in public administration and defence, and 6.9% in education), 8.2% in manufacturing and utilities (6.6% in manufacturing and 1.5% in utilities), 5.2% in construction, and 0.2% in agriculture.[195][196]

The Paris Region had 5.4 million salaried employees in 2010, of whom 2.2 million were concentrated in 39 pôles d'emplois or business districts. The largest of these, in terms of number of employees, is known in French as the QCA, or quartier central des affaires; it is in the western part of the City of Paris, in the 2nd, 8th, 9th, 16th, and 18th arrondissements. In 2010, it was the workplace of 500,000 salaried employees, about 30 percent of the salaried employees in Paris and 10 percent of those in the Île-de-France. The largest sectors of activity in the central business district were finance and insurance (16 percent of employees in the district) and business services (15 percent). The district also includes a large concentration of department stores, shopping areas, hotels and restaurants, as well a government offices and ministries.[197]

The second-largest business district in terms of employment is La Défense, just west of the city, where many companies installed their offices in the 1990s. In 2010, it was the workplace of 144,600 employees, of whom 38 percent worked in finance and insurance, 16 percent in business support services. Two other important districts, Neuilly-sur-Seine and Levallois-Perret, are extensions of the Paris business district and of La Défense. Another district, including Boulogne-Billancourt, Issy-les-Moulineaux and the southern part of the 15th arrondissement, is a centre of activity for the media and information technology.[197]

The top ten French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 for 2018 all have their headquarters in the Paris Region; six in the central business district of the City of Paris; and four close to the city in the Hauts-de-Seine Department, three in La Défense and one in Boulogne-Billancourt. Some companies, like Société Générale, have offices in both Paris and La Défense.

The Paris Region is France's leading region for economic activity, with a GDP of €681 billion (~US$850 billion) and €56,000 (~US$70,000) per capita.[6] In 2011, its GDP ranked second among the regions of Europe and its per-capita GDP was the 4th highest in Europe.[198][199] While the Paris region's population accounted for 18.8 percent of metropolitan France in 2011,[200] the Paris region's GDP accounted for 30 percent of metropolitan France's GDP.[201]

The Paris Region economy has gradually shifted from industry to high-value-added service industries (finance, IT services) and high-tech manufacturing (electronics, optics, aerospace, etc.).[202] The Paris region's most intense economic activity through the central Hauts-de-Seine department and suburban La Défense business district places Paris' economic centre to the west of the city, in a triangle between the Opéra Garnier, La Défense and the Val de Seine.[202] While the Paris economy is dominated by services, and employment in manufacturing sector has declined sharply, the region remains an important manufacturing centre, particularly for aeronautics, automobiles, and "eco" industries.[202]

In the 2017 worldwide cost of living survey by the Economist Intelligence Unit, based on a survey made in September 2016, Paris ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world, and the second most expensive in Europe, after Zurich.[203]

In 2018, Paris was the most expensive city in the world with Singapore and Hong Kong.[204]

Station F is a business incubator for startups, located in 13th arrondissement of Paris. Noted as the world's largest startup facility.[205]

Employment[edit]

Employment by economic sector in the Paris area (petite couronne), with population and unemployment figures (2015)

According to 2015 INSEE figures, 68.3 percent of employees in the City of Paris work in commerce, transportation, and services; 24.5 percent in public administration, health and social services; 4.1 percent in industry, and 0.1 percent in agriculture.[206]

The majority of Paris' salaried employees fill 370,000 businesses services jobs, concentrated in the north-western 8th, 16th and 17th arrondissements.[207] Paris' financial service companies are concentrated in the central-western 8th and 9th arrondissement banking and insurance district.[207] Paris' department store district in the 1st, 6th, 8th and 9th arrondissements employ ten percent of mostly female Paris workers, with 100,000 of these registered in the retail trade.[207] Fourteen percent of Parisians work in hotels and restaurants and other services to individuals.[207] Nineteen percent of Paris employees work for the State in either in administration or education. The majority of Paris' healthcare and social workers work at the hospitals and social housing concentrated in the peripheral 13th, 14th, 18th, 19th and 20th arrondissements.[207] Outside Paris, the western Hauts-de-Seine department La Défense district specialising in finance, insurance and scientific research district, employs 144,600,[202] and the north-eastern Seine-Saint-Denis audiovisual sector has 200 media firms and 10 major film studios.[202]

Paris' manufacturing is mostly focused in its suburbs, and the city itself has only around 75,000 manufacturing workers, most of which are in the textile, clothing, leather goods, and shoe trades.[202] Paris region manufacturing specialises in transportation, mainly automobiles, aircraft and trains, but this is in a sharp decline: Paris proper manufacturing jobs dropped by 64 percent between 1990 and 2010, and the Paris region lost 48 percent during the same period. Most of this is due to companies relocating outside the Paris region. The Paris region's 800 aerospace companies employed 100,000.[202] Four hundred automobile industry companies employ another 100,000 workers: many of these are centred in the Yvelines department around the Renault and PSA-Citroen plants (this department alone employs 33,000),[202] but the industry as a whole suffered a major loss with the 2014 closing of a major Aulnay-sous-Bois Citroen assembly plant.[202]

The southern Essonne department specialises in science and technology,[202] and the south-eastern Val-de-Marne, with its wholesale Rungis food market, specialises in food processing and beverages.[202] The Paris region's manufacturing decline is quickly being replaced by eco-industries: these employ about 100,000 workers.[202] In 2011, while only 56,927 construction workers worked in Paris itself,[208] its metropolitan area employed 246,639,[206] in an activity centred largely on the Seine-Saint-Denis (41,378)[209] and Hauts-de-Seine (37,303)[210] departments and the new business-park centres appearing there.

Unemployment[edit]

Paris' 2015 at-census unemployment rate was 12.2%,[206] and in the first trimester of 2018, its ILO-critera unemployment rate was 7.1 percent. The provisional unemployment rate in the whole Paris Region was higher: 8.0 percent, and considerably higher in some suburbs, notably the Department of Seine-Saint-Denis to the east (11.8 percent) and the Val-d'Oise to the north (8.2 percent).[211]

Incomes[edit]

Median income in Paris and its nearest departments

The average net household income (after social, pension and health insurance contributions) in Paris was €36,085 for 2011.[212] It ranged from €22,095 in the 19th arrondissement[213] to €82,449 in the 7th arrondissement.[214] The median taxable income for 2011 was around €25,000 in Paris and €22,200 for Île-de-France.[215] Generally speaking, incomes are higher in the Western part of the city and in the western suburbs than in the northern and eastern parts of the urban area.[216] Unemployment was estimated at 8.2 percent in the City of Paris and 8.8 percent in the Île-de-France region in the first trimester of 2015. It ranged from 7.6 percent in the wealthy Essonne department to 13.1 percent in the Seine-Saint-Denis department, where many recent immigrants live.[217]

While Paris has some of the richest neighbourhoods in France, it also has some of the poorest, mostly on the eastern side of the city. In 2012, 14 percent of households in the city earned less than €977 per month, the official poverty line. Twenty-five percent of residents in the 19th arrondissement lived below the poverty line; 24 percent in the 18th, 22 percent in the 20th and 18 percent in the 10th. In the city's wealthiest neighbourhood, the 7th arrondissement, 7 percent lived below the poverty line; 8 percent in the 6th arrondissement; and 9 percent in the 16th arrondissement.[218]

Tourism[edit]

Tourists from around the world make the Louvre the most-visited art museum in the world.

Greater Paris, comprising Paris and its three surrounding departments, received 38 million visitors in 2019, a record, measured by hotel arrivals.[17] These included 12.2 million French visitors. Of foreign visitors, the greatest number came from the United States (2.6 million), United Kingdom (1.2 million), Germany (981 thousand) and China (711 thousand).[17] However, tourism to Paris and its region fell to 17.5 million in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, with a 78 percent drop in foreign tourists measured by hotel stays, and a drop of 56 percent in French guests, for an overall drop of 68 percent. This caused a drop 15 billion Euros in hotel receipts.[219]

In 2018, measured by the Euromonitor Global Cities Destination Index, Paris was the second-busiest airline destination in the world, with 19.10 million visitors, behind Bangkok (22.78 million) but ahead of London (19.09 million).[220] According to the Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau, 393,008 workers in Greater Paris, or 12.4% of the total workforce, are engaged in tourism-related sectors such as hotels, catering, transport and leisure.[221]

Monuments and attractions[edit]

The Passage Jouffroy, one of Paris's covered passages

The city's top cultural attraction in 2019 was the Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (11 million visitors), followed by the Louvre (9.6 million visitors); the Eiffel Tower (6.1 million visitors); the Centre Pompidou (3.5 million visitors); and the Musée d'Orsay (3.3 million visitors).[17]

Paris, Banks of the Seine
UNESCO World Heritage Site
CriteriaCultural: i, ii, iv
Reference600
Inscription1991 (15th session)
Area365 ha

The centre of Paris contains the most visited monuments in the city, including the Notre Dame Cathedral (now closed for restoration) and the Louvre as well as the Sainte-Chapelle; Les Invalides, where the tomb of Napoleon is located, and the Eiffel Tower are located on the Left Bank south-west of the centre. The Panthéon and the Catacombs of Paris are also located on the Left Bank of the Seine. The banks of the Seine from the Pont de Sully to the Pont d'Iéna have been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991.[222]

The Axe historique, pictured here from Concorde to Grande Arche of La Défense

Other landmarks are laid out east to west along the historical axis of Paris, which runs from the Louvre through the Tuileries Garden, the Luxor Column in the Place de la Concorde, and the Arc de Triomphe, to the Grande Arche of La Défense.

Several other much-visited landmarks are located in the suburbs of the city; the Basilica of St Denis, in Seine-Saint-Denis, is the birthplace of the Gothic style of architecture and the royal necropolis of French kings and queens.[223] The Paris region hosts three other UNESCO Heritage sites: the Palace of Versailles in the west,[224] the Palace of Fontainebleau in the south,[225] and the medieval fairs site of Provins in the east.[226] In the Paris region, Disneyland Paris, in Marne-la-Vallée, 32 kilometres (20 miles) east of the centre of Paris, received 9.66 million visitors in 2017.[227]

Hotels[edit]

In 2019 Greater Paris had 2,056 hotels, including 94 five-star hotels, with a total of 121,646 rooms.[17] Paris has long been famous for its grand hotels. The Hotel Meurice, opened for British travellers in 1817, was one of the first luxury hotels in Paris.[228] The arrival of the railways and the Paris Exposition of 1855 brought the first flood of tourists and the first modern grand hotels; the Hôtel du Louvre (now an antiques marketplace) in 1855; the Grand Hotel (now the InterContinental Paris Le Grand Hotel) in 1862; and the Hôtel Continental in 1878. The Hôtel Ritz on Place Vendôme opened in 1898, followed by the Hôtel Crillon in an 18th-century building on the Place de la Concorde in 1909; the Hotel Bristol on the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in 1925; and the Hotel George V in 1928.[229]

In addition to hotels, in 2019 Greater Paris had 60,000 homes registered with Airbnb.[17] Under French law, renters of these units must pay the Paris tourism tax. The company paid the city government 7.3 million euros in 2016.[230]

Culture[edit]

Painting and sculpture[edit]

Pierre Mignard, Self-portrait, between 1670 and 1690, oil on canvas, 235 cm × 188 cm (93 in × 74 in), The Louvre

For centuries, Paris has attracted artists from around the world, who arrive in the city to educate themselves and to seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources and galleries. As a result, Paris has acquired a reputation as the "City of Art".[231] Italian artists were a profound influence on the development of art in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly in sculpture and reliefs. Painting and sculpture became the pride of the French monarchy and the French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists to adorn their palaces during the French Baroque and Classicism era. Sculptors such as Girardon, Coysevox and Coustou acquired reputations as the finest artists in the royal court in 17th-century France. Pierre Mignard became the first painter to King Louis XIV during this period. In 1648, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture) was established to accommodate for the dramatic interest in art in the capital. This served as France's top art school until 1793.[232]

Auguste Renoir, Bal du moulin de la Galette, 1876, oil on canvas, 131 cm × 175 cm (52 in × 69 in), Musée d'Orsay

Paris was in its artistic prime in the 19th century and early 20th century, when it had a colony of artists established in the city and in art schools associated with some of the finest painters of the times: Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, Paul Gauguin, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and others. The French Revolution and political and social change in France had a profound influence on art in the capital. Paris was central to the development of Romanticism in art, with painters such as Géricault.[232] Impressionism, Art Nouveau, Symbolism, Fauvism, Cubism and Art Deco movements all evolved in Paris.[232] In the late 19th century, many artists in the French provinces and worldwide flocked to Paris to exhibit their works in the numerous salons and expositions and make a name for themselves.[233] Artists such as Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Henri Rousseau, Marc Chagall, Amedeo Modigliani and many others became associated with Paris. Picasso, living in Le Bateau-Lavoir in Montmartre, painted his famous La Famille de Saltimbanques and Les Demoiselles d'Avignon between 1905 and 1907.[234] Montmartre and Montparnasse became centres for artistic production.

The most prestigious names of French and foreign sculptors, who made their reputation in Paris in the modern era, are Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (Statue of Liberty – Liberty Enlightening the World), Auguste Rodin, Camille Claudel, Antoine Bourdelle, Paul Landowski (statue of Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro) and Aristide Maillol. The Golden Age of the School of Paris ended between the two world wars.

Photography[edit]

The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced the first permanent photograph on a polished pewter plate in Paris in 1825. In 1839, after the death of Niépce, Louis Daguerre patented the Daguerrotype, which became the most common form of photography until the 1860s. [232] The work of Étienne-Jules Marey in the 1880s contributed considerably to the development of modern photography. Photography came to occupy a central role in Parisian Surrealist activity, in the works of Man Ray and Maurice Tabard.[235][236] Numerous photographers achieved renown for their photography of Paris, including Eugène Atget, noted for his depictions of street scenes, Robert Doisneau, noted for his playful pictures of people and market scenes (among which Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville has become iconic of the romantic vision of Paris), Marcel Bovis, noted for his night scenes, as well as others such as Jacques-Henri Lartigue and Henri Cartier-Bresson.[232] Poster art also became an important art form in Paris in the late nineteenth century, through the work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Jules Chéret, Eugène Grasset, Adolphe Willette, Pierre Bonnard, Georges de Feure, Henri-Gabriel Ibels, Paul Gavarni and Alphonse Mucha.[232]

Museums[edit]

Louvre
Musée d'Orsay

The Louvre received 2.7 million visitors in 2020, a drop of 72 percent from the 9.6 million visitors in 2019. The Louvre was closed for 150 days during the year because of the Covid-19 virus, but it still retained its position as first in the list of the Most visited art museums in the world. [237] Its treasures include the Mona Lisa (La Joconde), the Venus de Milo statue, Liberty Leading the People. The second-most visited museum in the city in 2020, and 12th most visited art museum in the world, with 3.5 million visitors, was the Centre Georges Pompidou, also known as Beaubourg, which houses the Musée National d'Art Moderne.[17] The third most visited Paris museum, in a building constructed for the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1900 as the Orsay railway station, was the Musée d'Orsay, which had 3.3 million visitors in 2020, the 12th most visited art museum in 2020, but a drop of 76 percent in visitors from 2019.[238] The Orsay displays French art of the 19th century, including major collections of the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. The Musée de l'Orangerie, near both the Louvre and the Orsay, also exhibits Impressionists and Post-Impressionists, including most of Claude Monet's large Water Lilies murals. The Musée national du Moyen Âge, or Cluny Museum, presents Medieval art, including the famous tapestry cycle of The Lady and the Unicorn. The Guimet Museum, or Musée national des arts asiatiques, has one of the largest collections of Asian art in Europe. There are also notable museums devoted to individual artists, including the Musée Picasso, the Musée Rodin and the Musée national Eugène Delacroix.

Musée du quai Branly

Paris hosts one of the largest science museums in Europe, the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie at La Villette. It attracted 2.2 million visitors in 2018.[239] The National Museum of Natural History located near the Jardin des plantes attracted two million visitors in 2018.[239] It is famous for its dinosaur artefacts, mineral collections and its Gallery of Evolution. The military history of France, from the Middle Ages to World War II, is vividly presented by displays at the Musée de l'Armée at Les Invalides, near the tomb of Napoleon. In addition to the national museums, run by the Ministry of Culture, the City of Paris operates 14 museums, including the Carnavalet Museum on the history of Paris, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Palais de Tokyo, the House of Victor Hugo, the House of Balzac and the Catacombs of Paris.[240] There are also notable private museums; The Contemporary Art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation, designed by architect Frank Gehry, opened in October 2014 in the Bois de Boulogne.

Theatre[edit]

The Opéra Bastille

The largest opera houses of Paris are the 19th-century Opéra Garnier (historical Paris Opéra) and modern Opéra Bastille; the former tends toward the more classic ballets and operas, and the latter provides a mixed repertoire of classic and modern.[241] In middle of the 19th century, there were three other active and competing opera houses: the Opéra-Comique (which still exists), Théâtre-Italien and Théâtre Lyrique (which in modern times changed its profile and name to Théâtre de la Ville).[242] Philharmonie de Paris, the modern symphonic concert hall of Paris, opened in January 2015. Another musical landmark is the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, where the first performances of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes took place in 1913.

The Comédie Française (Salle Richelieu)

Theatre traditionally has occupied a large place in Parisian culture, and many of its most popular actors today are also stars of French television. The oldest and most famous Paris theatre is the Comédie-Française, founded in 1680. Run by the Government of France, it performs mostly French classics at the Salle Richelieu in the Palais-Royal at 2 rue de Richelieu, next to the Louvre.[243] of Other famous theatres include the Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe, next to the Luxembourg Gardens, also a state institution and theatrical landmark; the Théâtre Mogador, and the Théâtre de la Gaîté-Montparnasse.[244]

The music hall and cabaret are famous Paris institutions. The Moulin Rouge was opened in 1889. It was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill on its roof, and became the birthplace of the dance known as the French Cancan. It helped make famous the singers Mistinguett and Édith Piaf and the painter Toulouse-Lautrec, who made posters for the venue. In 1911, the dance hall Olympia Paris invented the grand staircase as a settling for its shows, competing with its great rival, the Folies Bergère. Its stars in the 1920s included the American singer and dancer Josephine Baker. Later, Olympia Paris presented Dalida, Edith Piaf, Marlene Dietrich, Miles Davis, Judy Garland and the Grateful Dead.

The Casino de Paris presented many famous French singers, including Mistinguett, Maurice Chevalier and Tino Rossi. Other famous Paris music halls include Le Lido, on the Champs-Élysées, opened in 1946; and the Crazy Horse Saloon, featuring strip-tease, dance and magic, opened in 1951. A half dozen music halls exist today in Paris, attended mostly by visitors to the city.[245]

Literature[edit]

Victor Hugo

The first book printed in France, Epistolae ("Letters"), by Gasparinus de Bergamo (Gasparino da Barzizza), was published in Paris in 1470 by the press established by Johann Heynlin. Since then, Paris has been the centre of the French publishing industry, the home of some of the world's best-known writers and poets, and the setting for many classic works of French literature. Almost all the books published in Paris in the Middle Ages were in Latin, rather than French. Paris did not become the acknowledged capital of French literature until the 17th century, with authors such as Boileau, Corneille, La Fontaine, Molière, Racine, several coming from the provinces, as well as the foundation of the Académie française.[246] In the 18th century, the literary life of Paris revolved around the cafés and salons; it was dominated by Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Pierre de Marivaux and Pierre Beaumarchais.

During the 19th century, Paris was the home and subject for some of France's greatest writers, including Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, Mérimée, Alfred de Musset, Marcel Proust, Émile Zola, Alexandre Dumas, Gustave Flaubert, Guy de Maupassant and Honoré de Balzac. Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired the renovation of its setting, the Notre-Dame de Paris.[247] Another of Victor Hugo's works, Les Misérables, written while he was in exile outside France during the Second Empire, described the social change and political turmoil in Paris in the early 1830s.[248] One of the most popular of all French writers, Jules Verne, worked at the Theatre Lyrique and the Paris stock exchange, while he did research for his stories at the National Library.[249][verification needed]

Jean-Paul Sartre

In the 20th century, the Paris literary community was dominated by figures such as Colette, André Gide, François Mauriac, André Malraux, Albert Camus, and, after World War II, by Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre. Between the wars it was the home of many important expatriate writers, including Ernest Hemingway, Samuel Beckett, and, in the 1970s, Milan Kundera. The winner of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature, Patrick Modiano (who lives in Paris), based most of his literary work on the depiction of the city during World War II and the 1960s–1970s.[250]

Paris is a city of books and bookstores. In the 1970s, 80 percent of French-language publishing houses were found in Paris, almost all on the Left Bank in the 5th, 6th and 7th arrondissements. Since that time, because of high prices, some publishers have moved out to the less expensive areas.[251] It is also a city of small bookstores. There are about 150 bookstores in the 5th arrondissement alone, plus another 250 book stalls along the Seine. Small Paris bookstores are protected against competition from discount booksellers by French law; books, even e-books, cannot be discounted more than five percent below their publisher's cover price.[252]

Music[edit]

Olympia, a famous music hall

In the late 12th century, a school of polyphony was established at Notre-Dame. Among the Trouvères of northern France, a group of Parisian aristocrats became known for their poetry and songs. Troubadours, from the south of France, were also popular. During the reign of François I, in the Renaissance era, the lute became popular in the French court. The French royal family and courtiers "disported themselves in masques, ballets, allegorical dances, recitals, and opera and comedy", and a national musical printing house was established.[232] In the Baroque-era, noted composers included Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, and François Couperin.[232] The Conservatoire de Musique de Paris was founded in 1795.[253] By 1870, Paris had become an important centre for symphony, ballet and operatic music.

Romantic-era composers (in Paris) include Hector Berlioz (La Symphonie fantastique), Charles Gounod (Faust), Camille Saint-Saëns (Samson et Delilah), Léo Delibes (Lakmé) and Jules Massenet (Thaïs), among others.[232] Georges Bizet's Carmen premiered 3 March 1875. Carmen has since become one of the most popular and frequently-performed operas in the classical canon.[254][255] Among the Impressionist composers who created new works for piano, orchestra, opera, chamber music and other musical forms, stand in particular, Claude Debussy (Suite bergamasque, and its well-known third movement, Clair de lune, La Mer, Pelléas et Mélisande), Erik Satie (Gymnopédies, "Je te veux", Gnossiennes, Parade) and Maurice Ravel (Miroirs, Boléro, La valse, L'heure espagnole). Several foreign-born composers, such as Frédéric Chopin (Poland), Franz Liszt (Hungary), Jacques Offenbach (Germany), Niccolò Paganini (Italy), and Igor Stravinsky (Russia), established themselves or made significant contributions both with their works and their influence in Paris.

Charles Aznavour

Bal-musette is a style of French music and dance that first became popular in Paris in the 1870s and 1880s; by 1880 Paris had some 150 dance halls in the working-class neighbourhoods of the city.[256] Patrons danced the bourrée to the accompaniment of the cabrette (a bellows-blown bagpipe locally called a "musette") and often the vielle à roue (hurdy-gurdy) in the cafés and bars of the city. Parisian and Italian musicians who played the accordion adopted the style and established themselves in Auvergnat bars especially in the 19th arrondissement,[257] and the romantic sounds of the accordion has since become one of the musical icons of the city. Paris became a major centre for jazz and still attracts jazz musicians from all around the world to its clubs and cafés.[258]

Paris is the spiritual home of gypsy jazz in particular, and many of the Parisian jazzmen who developed in the first half of the 20th century began by playing Bal-musette in the city.[257] Django Reinhardt rose to fame in Paris, having moved to the 18th arrondissement in a caravan as a young boy, and performed with violinist Stéphane Grappelli and their Quintette du Hot Club de France in the 1930s and 1940s.[259]

Immediately after the War the Saint-Germain-des-Pres quarter and the nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home to many small jazz clubs, mostly found in cellars because of a lack of space; these included the Caveau des Lorientais, the Club Saint-Germain, the Rose Rouge, the Vieux-Colombier, and the most famous, Le Tabou. They introduced Parisians to the music of Claude Luter, Boris Vian, Sydney Bechet, Mezz Mezzrow, and Henri Salvador. Most of the clubs closed by the early 1960s, as musical tastes shifted toward rock and roll.[260]

Some of the finest manouche musicians in the world are found here playing the cafés of the city at night.[259] Some of the more notable jazz venues include the New Morning, Le Sunset, La Chope des Puces and Bouquet du Nord.[258][259] Several yearly festivals take place in Paris, including the Paris Jazz Festival and the rock festival Rock en Seine.[261] The Orchestre de Paris was established in 1967.[262] On 19 December 2015, Paris and other worldwide fans commemorated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Edith Piaf—a cabaret singer-songwriter and actress who became widely regarded as France's national chanteuse, as well as being one of France's greatest international stars.[263] Other singers—of similar style—include Maurice Chevalier, Charles Aznavour, Yves Montand, as well as Charles Trenet.

Paris has a big hip hop scene. This music became popular during the 1980s.[264] The presence of a large African and Caribbean community helped to its development, it gave a voice, a political and social status for many minorities.[265]

Cinema[edit]

The movie industry was born in Paris when Auguste and Louis Lumière projected the first motion picture for a paying audience at the Grand Café on 28 December 1895.[266] Many of Paris' concert/dance halls were transformed into cinemas when the media became popular beginning in the 1930s. Later, most of the largest cinemas were divided into multiple, smaller rooms. Paris' largest cinema room today is in the Grand Rex theatre with 2,700 seats.[267]
Big multiplex cinemas have been built since the 1990s. UGC Ciné Cité Les Halles with 27 screens, MK2 Bibliothèque with 20 screens and UGC Ciné Cité Bercy with 18 screens are among the largest.[268]

Parisians tend to share the same movie-going trends as many of the world's global cities, with cinemas primarily dominated by Hollywood-generated film entertainment. French cinema comes a close second, with major directors (réalisateurs) such as Claude Lelouch, Jean-Luc Godard, and Luc Besson, and the more slapstick/popular genre with director Claude Zidi as an example. European and Asian films are also widely shown and appreciated.[269] On 2 February 2000, Philippe Binant realised the first digital cinema projection in Europe, with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by Texas Instruments, in Paris.[270][271]

Restaurants and cuisine[edit]

Dining room of the Vagenende
Le Zimmer, on the Place du Châtelet, where Géo Lefèvre first suggested the idea of a Tour de France to Henri Desgrange in 1902

Since the late 18th century, Paris has been famous for its restaurants and haute cuisine, food meticulously prepared and artfully presented. A luxury restaurant, La Taverne Anglaise, opened in 1786 in the arcades of the Palais-Royal by Antoine Beauvilliers; it featured an elegant dining room, an extensive menu, linen tablecloths, a large wine list and well-trained waiters; it became a model for future Paris restaurants. The restaurant Le Grand Véfour in the Palais-Royal dates from the same period.[272] The famous Paris restaurants of the 19th century, including the Café de Paris, the Rocher de Cancale, the Café Anglais, Maison Dorée and the Café Riche, were mostly located near the theatres on the Boulevard des Italiens; they were immortalised in the novels of Balzac and Émile Zola. Several of the best-known restaurants in Paris today appeared during the Belle Époque, including Maxim's on Rue Royale, Ledoyen in the gardens of the Champs-Élysées, and the Tour d'Argent on the Quai de la Tournelle.[273]

Today, due to Paris' cosmopolitan population, every French regional cuisine and almost every national cuisine in the world can be found there; the city has more than 9,000 restaurants.[274] The Michelin Guide has been a standard guide to French restaurants since 1900, awarding its highest award, three stars, to the best restaurants in France. In 2018, of the 27 Michelin three-star restaurants in France, ten are located in Paris. These include both restaurants which serve classical French cuisine, such as L'Ambroisie in the Place des Vosges, and those which serve non-traditional menus, such as L'Astrance, which combines French and Asian cuisines. Several of France's most famous chefs, including Pierre Gagnaire, Alain Ducasse, Yannick Alléno and Alain Passard, have three-star restaurants in Paris.[275][276]

Les Deux Magots café on Boulevard Saint-Germain

In addition to the classical restaurants, Paris has several other kinds of traditional eating places. The café arrived in Paris in the 17th century, when the beverage was first brought from Turkey, and by the 18th century Parisian cafés were centres of the city's political and cultural life. The Café Procope on the Left Bank dates from this period. In the 20th century, the cafés of the Left Bank, especially Café de la Rotonde and Le Dôme Café in Montparnasse and Café de Flore and Les Deux Magots on Boulevard Saint Germain, all still in business, were important meeting places for painters, writers and philosophers.[273] A bistro is a type of eating place loosely defined as a neighbourhood restaurant with a modest decor and prices and a regular clientele and a congenial atmosphere. Its name is said to have come in 1814 from the Russian soldiers who occupied the city; "bistro" means "quickly" in Russian, and they wanted their meals served rapidly so they could get back their encampment. Real bistros are increasingly rare in Paris, due to rising costs, competition from cheaper ethnic restaurants, and different eating habits of Parisian diners.[277] A brasserie originally was a tavern located next to a brewery, which served beer and food at any hour. Beginning with the Paris Exposition of 1867; it became a popular kind of restaurant which featured beer and other beverages served by young women in the national costume associated with the beverage, particular German costumes for beer. Now brasseries, like cafés, serve food and drinks throughout the day.[278]

Fashion[edit]

Magdalena Frackowiak at Paris Fashion Week (Fall 2011)

Since the 19th century, Paris has been an international fashion capital, particularly in the domain of haute couture (clothing hand-made to order for private clients).[279] It is home to some of the largest fashion houses in the world, including Dior and Chanel, as well as many other well-known and more contemporary fashion designers, such as Karl Lagerfeld, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Yves Saint Laurent, Givenchy, and Christian Lacroix. Paris Fashion Week, held in January and July in the Carrousel du Louvre among other renowned city locations, is one of the top four events on the international fashion calendar. The other fashion capitals of the world, Milan, London, and New York also host fashion weeks.[280][281] Moreover, Paris is also the home of the world's largest cosmetics company: L'Oréal as well as three of the top five global makers of luxury fashion accessories: Louis Vuitton, Hermés, and Cartier.[282] Most of the major fashion designers have their showrooms along the Avenue Montaigne, between the Champs-Élysées and the Seine.

Holidays and festivals[edit]

Republican Guards parading on Bastille Day

Bastille Day, a celebration of the storming of the Bastille in 1789, the biggest festival in the city, is a military parade taking place every year on 14 July on the Champs-Élysées, from the Arc de Triomphe to Place de la Concorde. It includes a flypast over the Champs Élysées by the Patrouille de France, a parade of military units and equipment, and a display of fireworks in the evening, the most spectacular being the one at the Eiffel Tower.[283]

Some other yearly festivals are Paris-Plages, a festive event that lasts from mid-July to mid-August when the Right Bank of the Seine is converted into a temporary beach with sand, deck chairs and palm trees;[283] Journées du Patrimoine, Fête de la Musique, Techno Parade, Nuit Blanche, Cinéma au clair de lune, Printemps des rues, Festival d'automne, and Fête des jardins. The Carnaval de Paris, one of the oldest festivals in Paris, dates back to the Middle Ages.

Education[edit]

The main building of the former University of Paris is now used by classes from Sorbonne University, New Sorbonne University and other autonomous campuses.

Paris is the département with the highest proportion of highly educated people. In 2009, around 40 percent of Parisians held a licence-level diploma or higher, the highest proportion in France,[284] while 13 percent have no diploma, the third-lowest percentage in France. Education in Paris and the Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 people, 170,000 of whom are teachers and professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children and students in around 9,000 primary, secondary, and higher education schools and institutions.[285]

The University of Paris, founded in the 12th century, is often called the Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges. It was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities in 1970, following the student demonstrations in 1968. Most of the campuses today are in the Latin Quarter where the old university was located, while others are scattered around the city and the suburbs.[286]

The École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS), France's most prestigious university in the social sciences, is headquartered in the 6th arrondissement.

The Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of the grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside or inside the public university structure. The prestigious public universities are usually considered grands établissements. Most of the grandes écoles were relocated to the suburbs of Paris in the 1960s and 1970s, in new campuses much larger than the old campuses within the crowded City of Paris, though the École Normale Supérieure, PSL University has remained on rue d'Ulm in the 5th arrondissement.[287] There are a high number of engineering schools, led by the PSL University (which comprises several colleges such as École des Mines, École nationale supérieure de chimie, École Pratique des Hautes Études and Paris-Dauphine), the Paris-Saclay University (which comprises several colleges such as AgroParisTech, CentraleSupélec and ENS Paris-Saclay) the Polytechnic Institute of Paris (which comprises several colleges such as École Polytechnique, Télécom Paris and École nationale de la statistique et de l'administration économique) and also independent colleges such as École des Ponts et Chaussées or Arts et Métiers. There are also many business schools, including HEC, INSEAD, ESSEC, and ESCP Europe. The administrative school such as ENA has been relocated to Strasbourg, the political science school Sciences-Po is still located in Paris' 7th arrondissement, the most prestigious university for social sciences, the École des hautes études en sciences sociales is located in Paris' 6th arrondissement and the most prestigious university of economics and finance, Paris-Dauphine, is located in Paris' 16th. The Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of Sorbonne University is located in Neuilly-sur-Seine.[288] Paris is also home to several of France's most famous high-schools such as Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Lycée Henri-IV, Lycée Janson de Sailly and Lycée Condorcet. The National Institute of Sport and Physical Education, located in the 12th arrondissement, is both a physical education institute and high-level training centre for elite athletes.

Libraries[edit]

Sainte-Geneviève Library

The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) operates public libraries in Paris, among them the François Mitterrand Library, Richelieu Library, Louvois, Opéra Library, and Arsenal Library.[289] There are three public libraries in the 4th arrondissement. The Forney Library, in the Marais district, is dedicated to the decorative arts; the Arsenal Library occupies a former military building, and has a large collection on French literature; and the Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris, also in Le Marais, contains the Paris historical research service. The Sainte-Geneviève Library is in 5th arrondissement; designed by Henri Labrouste and built in the mid-1800s, it contains a rare book and manuscript division.[290] Bibliothèque Mazarine, in the 6th arrondissement, is the oldest public library in France. The Médiathèque Musicale Mahler in the 8th arrondissement opened in 1986 and contains collections related to music. The François Mitterrand Library (nicknamed Très Grande Bibliothèque) in the 13th arrondissement was completed in 1994 to a design of Dominique Perrault and contains four glass towers.[290]

There are several academic libraries and archives in Paris. The Sorbonne Library in the 5th arrondissement is the largest university library in Paris. In addition to the Sorbonne location, there are branches in Malesherbes, Clignancourt-Championnet, Michelet-Institut d'Art et d'Archéologie, Serpente-Maison de la Recherche, and Institut des Etudes Ibériques.[291] Other academic libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library, Leonardo da Vinci University Library, Paris School of Mines Library, and the René Descartes University Library.[292]

Sports[edit]

Parc des Princes.

Paris' most popular sport clubs are the association football club Paris Saint-Germain F.C. and the rugby union clubs Stade Français and Racing 92, the last of which is based just outside the city proper. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the commune of Saint-Denis.[293] It is used for football, rugby union and track and field athletics. It hosts the French national football team for friendlies and major tournaments qualifiers, annually hosts the French national rugby team's home matches of the Six Nations Championship, and hosts several important matches of the Stade Français rugby team.[293] In addition to Paris Saint-Germain F.C., the city has a number of other professional and amateur football clubs: Paris FC, Red Star, RCF Paris and Stade Français Paris.

2010 Tour de France, Champs Élysées.

Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games.

The city also hosted the finals of the 1938 FIFA World Cup (at the Stade Olympique de Colombes), as well as the 1998 FIFA World Cup and the 2007 Rugby World Cup Final (both at the Stade de France). Two UEFA Champions League Finals in the current century have also been played in the Stade de France: the 2000 and 2006 editions.[294] Paris has most recently been the host for UEFA Euro 2016, both at the Parc des Princes in the city proper and also at Stade de France, with the latter hosting the opening match and final.

The final stage of the most famous bicycle racing in the world, Tour de France, always finishes in Paris. Since 1975, the race has finished on the Champs-Elysées.[295]

Tennis is another popular sport in Paris and throughout France; the French Open, held every year on the red clay of the Roland Garros National Tennis Centre,[296] is one of the four Grand Slam events of the world professional tennis tour. The 17,000-seat Bercy Arena (officially named AccorHotels Arena and formerly known as the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy) is the venue for the annual Paris Masters ATP Tour tennis tournament and has been a frequent site of national and international tournaments in basketball, boxing, cycling, handball, ice hockey, show jumping and other sports. The Bercy Arena also hosted the 2017 IIHF World Ice Hockey Championship, together with Cologne, Germany. The final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1951 and EuroBasket 1999 were also played in Paris, the latter at the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy.

The basketball team Levallois Metropolitans plays some of its games at the 4,000 capacity Stade Pierre de Coubertin.[297] Another top-level professional team, Nanterre 92, plays in Nanterre.

Infrastructure[edit]

Transport[edit]

The Gare du Nord railway station is the busiest in Europe.

Paris is a major rail, highway, and air transport hub. Île-de-France Mobilités (IDFM), formerly the Syndicat des transports d'Île-de-France (STIF) and before that the Syndicat des transports parisiens (STP), oversees the transit network in the region.[298] The syndicate coordinates public transport and contracts it out to the RATP (operating 347 bus lines, the Métro, eight tramway lines, and sections of the RER), the SNCF (operating suburban rails, one tramway line and the other sections of the RER) and the Optile consortium of private operators managing 1,176 bus lines.[299]

Railways[edit]

A central hub of the national rail network, Paris' six major railway stations (Gare du Nord, Gare de l'Est, Gare de Lyon, Gare d'Austerlitz, Gare Montparnasse, Gare Saint-Lazare) and a minor one (Gare de Bercy) are connected to three networks: the TGV serving four high-speed rail lines, the normal speed Corail trains, and the suburban rails (Transilien).

Métro, RER and tramway[edit]

The Paris Métro is the busiest subway network in the European Union.

Since the inauguration of its first line in 1900, Paris's Métro network has grown to become the city's most widely used local transport system; today it carries about 5.23 million passengers daily[300] through 16 lines, 303 stations (385 stops) and 220 km (136.7 mi) of rails. Superimposed on this is a 'regional express network', the RER, whose five lines (A, B, C, D, and E), 257 stops and 587 km (365 mi) of rails connect Paris to more distant parts of the urban area.[301]

Over €26.5 billion will be invested over the next 15 years to extend the Métro network into the suburbs,[301] with notably the Grand Paris Express project.

In addition, the Paris region is served by a light rail network of nine lines, the tramway: Line T1 runs from Asnières-Gennevilliers to Noisy-le-Sec, Line T2 runs from Pont de Bezons to Porte de Versailles, Line T3a runs from Pont du Garigliano to Porte de Vincennes, Line T3b runs from Porte de Vincennes to Porte d'Asnières, Line T5 runs from Saint-Denis to Garges-Sarcelles, Line T6 runs from Châtillon to Viroflay, Line T7 runs from Villejuif to Athis-Mons, Line T8 runs from Saint-Denis to Épinay-sur-Seine and Villetaneuse, all of which are operated by the RATP Group,[302] and line T4 runs from Bondy RER to Aulnay-sous-Bois, which is operated by the state rail carrier SNCF.[301] Five new light rail lines are currently in various stages of development.[303]

Air[edit]

In 2020 Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport was the busiest airport in Europe and the eighth-busiest airport in the world.[304]
Busiest destinations from Paris
airports
(CDG, ORY, BVA) in 2014
Domestic destinationsPassengers
Toulouse3,158,331
Nice2,865,602
Bordeaux1,539,478
Marseille1,502,196
Pointe-à-Pitre1,191,437
Saint-Denis (Réunion)1,108,964
Fort-de-France1,055,770
Other domestic destinations
Montpellier807,482
Biarritz684,578
Lyon613,395
International destinationsPassengers
Italy7,881,497
Spain7,193,481
United States6,495,677
Germany4,685,313
United Kingdom4,177,519
Morocco3,148,479
Portugal3,018,446
Algeria2,351,402
China2,141,527
Other international destinations
Switzerland1,727,169

Paris is a major international air transport hub with the 5th busiest airport system in the world. The city is served by three commercial international airports: Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Paris–Orly and Beauvais–Tillé Airport. Together these three airports recorded traffic of 96.5 million passengers in 2014.[305] There is also one general aviation airport, Paris-Le Bourget, historically the oldest Parisian airport and closest to the city centre, which is now used only for private business flights and air shows.

Orly Airport, located in the southern suburbs of Paris, replaced Le Bourget as the principal airport of Paris from the 1950s to the 1980s.[306] Charles de Gaulle Airport, located on the edge of the northern suburbs of Paris, opened to commercial traffic in 1974 and became the busiest Parisian airport in 1993.[307] For the year 2017 it was the 5th busiest airport in the world by international traffic and it is the hub for the nation's flag carrier Air France.[301] Beauvais-Tillé Airport, located 69 kilometres (43 miles) north of Paris' city centre, is used by charter airlines and low-cost carriers such as Ryanair.

Domestically, air travel between Paris and some of France's largest cities such as Lyon, Marseille, or Strasbourg has been in a large measure replaced by high-speed rail due to the opening of several high-speed TGV rail lines from the 1980s. For example, after the LGV Méditerranée opened in 2001, air traffic between Paris and Marseille declined from 2,976,793 passengers in 2000 to 1,502,196 passengers in 2014.[308] After the LGV Est opened in 2007, air traffic between Paris and Strasbourg declined from 1,006,327 passengers in 2006 to 157,207 passengers in 2014.[308]

Internationally, air traffic has increased markedly in recent years between Paris and the Gulf airports, the emerging nations of Africa, Russia, Turkey, Portugal, Italy, and mainland China, whereas noticeable decline has been recorded between Paris and the British Isles, Egypt, Tunisia, and Japan.[309][310]

Motorways[edit]

Ring roads of Paris

The city is also the most important hub of France's motorway network, and is surrounded by three orbital freeways: the Périphérique,[106] which follows the approximate path of 19th-century fortifications around Paris, the A86 motorway in the inner suburbs, and finally the Francilienne motorway in the outer suburbs. Paris has an extensive road network with over 2,000 km (1,243 mi) of highways and motorways.

Waterways[edit]

The Paris region is the most active water transport area in France, with most of the cargo handled by Ports of Paris in facilities located around Paris. The rivers Loire, Rhine, Rhone, Meuse, and Scheldt can be reached by canals connecting with the Seine, which include the Canal Saint-Martin, Canal Saint-Denis, and the Canal de l'Ourcq.[311]

Cycling[edit]

Vélib' at the Place de la Bastille

There are 440 km (270 mi) of cycle paths and routes in Paris. These include piste cyclable (bike lanes separated from other traffic by physical barriers such as a kerb) and bande cyclable (a bicycle lane denoted by a painted path on the road). Some 29 km (18 mi) of specially marked bus lanes are free to be used by cyclists, with a protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles.[312] Cyclists have also been given the right to ride in both directions on certain one-way streets. Paris offers a bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed at 1,800 parking stations,[313] which can be rented for short and medium distances including one way trips.

Electricity[edit]

Electricity is provided to Paris through a peripheral grid fed by multiple sources. As of 2012, around 50% of electricity generated in the Île-de-France comes from cogeneration energy plants located near the outer limits of the region; other energy sources include the Nogent Nuclear Power Plant (35%), trash incineration (9% – with cogeneration plants, these provide the city in heat as well), methane gas (5%), hydraulics (1%), solar power (0.1%) and a negligible amount of wind power (0.034 GWh).[314] A quarter of the city's district heating is to come from a plant in Saint-Ouen-sur-Seine, burning a 50/50-mix of coal and 140,000 tonnes of wood pellets from the United States per year.[315]

Water and sanitation[edit]

A view of the Seine, the Île de la Cité and a Bateau Mouche

Paris in its early history had only the rivers Seine and Bièvre for water. From 1809, the Canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers to the north-east of the capital.[316] From 1857, the civil engineer Eugène Belgrand, under Napoleon III, oversaw the construction of a series of new aqueducts that brought water from locations all around the city to several reservoirs built atop the Capital's highest points of elevation.[317] From then on, the new reservoir system became Paris' principal source of drinking water, and the remains of the old system, pumped into lower levels of the same reservoirs, were from then on used for the cleaning of Paris' streets. This system is still a major part of Paris' modern water-supply network. Today Paris has more than 2,400 km (1,491 mi) of underground passageways[318] dedicated to the evacuation of Paris' liquid wastes.

In 1982, Mayor Chirac introduced the motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte to remove dog faeces from Paris streets.[319] The project was abandoned in 2002 for a new and better enforced local law, under the terms of which dog owners can be fined up to €500 for not removing their dog faeces.[320] The air pollution in Paris, from the point of view of particulate matter (PM10), is the highest in France with 38 μg/m3.[321]

Parks and gardens[edit]

The lawns of the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont on a sunny day
The Passerelle de l'Avre, crossing the Seine and establishing a link between the Bois de Boulogne and Saint-Cloud in Hauts-de-Seine, is the City of Paris's westernmost point.

Paris today has more than 421 municipal parks and gardens, covering more than 3,000 hectares and containing more than 250,000 trees.[322] Two of Paris's oldest and most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden (created in 1564 for the Tuileries Palace and redone by André Le Nôtre between 1664 and 1672)[323] and the Luxembourg Garden, for the Luxembourg Palace, built for Marie de' Medici in 1612, which today houses the Senate.[324] The Jardin des plantes was the first botanical garden in Paris, created in 1626 by Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse for the cultivation of medicinal plants.[325]

Between 1853 and 1870, Emperor Napoleon III and the city's first director of parks and gardens, Jean-Charles Adolphe Alphand, created the Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes, Parc Montsouris and Parc des Buttes-Chaumont, located at the four points of the compass around the city, as well as many smaller parks, squares and gardens in the Paris's quarters.[326] Since 1977, the city has created 166 new parks, most notably the Parc de la Villette (1987), Parc André Citroën (1992), Parc de Bercy (1997) and Parc Clichy-Batignolles (2007).[327] One of the newest parks, the Promenade des Berges de la Seine (2013), built on a former highway on the left bank of the Seine between the Pont de l'Alma and the Musée d'Orsay, has floating gardens and gives a view of the city's landmarks.

Weekly Parkruns take place in the Bois de Boulogne and the Parc Montsouris [328][329]

Cemeteries[edit]

The Paris Catacombs hold the remains of approximately 6 million people.

During the Roman era, the city's main cemetery was located to the outskirts of the left bank settlement, but this changed with the rise of Catholic Christianity, where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds for use by their parishes. With Paris's growth many of these, particularly the city's largest cemetery, the Holy Innocents' Cemetery, were filled to overflowing, creating quite unsanitary conditions for the capital. When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786, the contents of all Paris' parish cemeteries were transferred to a renovated section of Paris's stone mines outside the "Porte d'Enfer" city gate, today place Denfert-Rochereau in the 14th arrondissement.[330][331] The process of moving bones from the Cimetière des Innocents to the catacombs took place between 1786 and 1814;[332] part of the network of tunnels and remains can be visited today on the official tour of the catacombs.

After a tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries, the Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided a more definitive solution in the creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside the city limits.[333] Open from 1804, these were the cemeteries of Père Lachaise, Montmartre, Montparnasse, and later Passy; these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all neighbouring communes to the inside of its much larger ring of suburban fortifications in 1860. New suburban cemeteries were created in the early 20th century: The largest of these are the Cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen, the Cimetière parisien de Pantin (also known as Cimetière parisien de Pantin-Bobigny), the Cimetière parisien d'Ivry, and the Cimetière parisien de Bagneux.[334] Some of the most famous people in the world are buried in Parisian cemeteries, such as Oscar Wilde and Serge Gainsbourg among others.[335]

Healthcare[edit]

The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, the oldest hospital in the city

Health care and emergency medical service in the City of Paris and its suburbs are provided by the Assistance publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), a public hospital system that employs more than 90,000 people (including practitioners, support personnel, and administrators) in 44 hospitals.[336] It is the largest hospital system in Europe. It provides health care, teaching, research, prevention, education and emergency medical service in 52 branches of medicine. The hospitals receive more than 5.8 million annual patient visits.[336]

One of the most notable hospitals is the Hôtel-Dieu, founded in 651, the oldest hospital in the city,[337] although the current building is the product of a reconstruction of 1877. Other hospitals include Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital (one of the largest in Europe), Hôpital Cochin, Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Bicêtre Hospital, Beaujon Hospital, the Curie Institute, Lariboisière Hospital, Necker–Enfants Malades Hospital, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Hôpital de la Charité and the American Hospital of Paris.

Media[edit]

Agence France-Presse Headquarters in Paris

Paris and its close suburbs is home to numerous newspapers, magazines and publications including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération, Le Nouvel Observateur, Le Canard enchaîné, La Croix, Pariscope, Le Parisien (in Saint-Ouen), Les Échos, Paris Match (Neuilly-sur-Seine), Réseaux & Télécoms, Reuters France, and L'Officiel des Spectacles.[338] France's two most prestigious newspapers, Le Monde and Le Figaro, are the centrepieces of the Parisian publishing industry.[339] Agence France-Presse is France's oldest, and one of the world's oldest, continually operating news agencies. AFP, as it is colloquially abbreviated, maintains its headquarters in Paris, as it has since 1835.[340] France 24 is a television news channel owned and operated by the French government, and is based in Paris.[341] Another news agency is France Diplomatie, owned and operated by the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, and pertains solely to diplomatic news and occurrences.[342]

The most-viewed network in France, TF1, is in nearby Boulogne-Billancourt. France 2, France 3, Canal+, France 5, M6 (Neuilly-sur-Seine), Arte, D8, W9, NT1, NRJ 12, La Chaîne parlementaire, France 4, BFM TV, and Gulli are other stations located in and around the capital.[343] Radio France, France's public radio broadcaster, and its various channels, is headquartered in Paris' 16th arrondissement. Radio France Internationale, another public broadcaster is also based in the city.[344] Paris also holds the headquarters of the La Poste, France's national postal carrier.[345]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Column dedicated to Paris near the Baths of Diocletian in Rome
Sculpture dedicated to Rome in the square Paul Painlevé in Paris

Since 9 April 1956, Paris is exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with:[346][347]

  • Rome, Italy, 1956
Seule Paris est digne de Rome ; seule Rome est digne de Paris. (in French)
Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di Parigi. (in Italian)
"Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris."[348]

Other relationships[edit]

Paris has agreements of friendship and co-operation with:[346]

  • Algiers, 2003
  • Amman, 1987
  • Athens, 2000
  • Beijing, 1997
  • Beirut, 1992
  • Berlin, 1987
  • Bucharest[349]
  • Buenos Aires, 1999
  • Cairo, 1985
  • Casablanca, 2004
  • Chicago, 1996
  • Copenhagen, 2005
  • Geneva, 2002
  • Hanoi, 2013[350]
  • Jakarta, 1995
  • Kyoto, 1958
  • Lisbon, 1998
  • London, 2001
  • Madrid, 2000
  • Mexico City, 1999
  • Montreal, 2006
  • Moscow, 1992
  • New York City, 2007
  • Porto Alegre, 2001
  • Prague, 1997
  • Quebec City, 2003
  • Rabat, 2004
  • Riyadh, 1997
  • Saint Petersburg, 1997
  • Sana'a, 1987
  • San Francisco, 1996
  • Santiago, 1997
  • São Paulo, 2004
  • Seoul, 1991
  • Sofia, 1998
  • Sydney, 1998
  • Tbilisi, 1997
  • Tehran, 2004
  • Tokyo, 1982
  • Tunis, 2004
  • Ubon Ratchathani, 2000
  • Warsaw, 1999
  • Washington, D.C., 2000
  • Yerevan, 1998

See also[edit]

  • Art Nouveau in Paris
  • Art Deco in Paris
  • C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group
  • International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts held in Paris in 1925
  • Megacity
  • Outline of France
  • Outline of Paris
  • Paris syndrome

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The word was most likely created by Parisians of the lower popular class who spoke *argot*, then *parigot* was used in a provocative manner outside the Parisian region and throughout France to mean Parisians in general.

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Vincent Cronin (1989). Paris on the Eve, 1900–1914. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-312-04876-1.
  • Vincent Cronin (1994). Paris: City of Light, 1919–1939. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-215191-7.
  • Jean Favier (1997). Paris (in French). Fayard. ISBN 978-2-213-59874-1.
  • Jacques Hillairet (2005). Connaissance du Vieux Paris (in French). Rivages. ISBN 978-2-86930-648-6.
  • Colin Jones (2004). Paris: The Biography of a City. New York: Penguin Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-03393-5.
  • Bernard Marchand (1993). Paris, histoire d'une ville : XIXe-XXe siècle (in French). Paris: Le Seuil. ISBN 978-2-02-012864-3.
  • Rosemary Wakeman (2009). The Heroic City: Paris, 1945–1958. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-87023-6.

External links[edit]

  • Official website (in French)